I just re-read some parts of Terrible Justice: Sioux Chiefs and U.S. Soldiers on the Upper Missouri, 1854–1868, by Doreen Chaky. In this book, in the parts I read based on minutes of the Fort Pierre Council 1856, two chiefs are mentioned so far unknown to me. A Hunkpapa elder called The-One-Who-Uses-His-Heart-For-All (sub chief of Bear Ribs) and an Oglala chief Big Head, who was the only Oglala to travel from Fort Laramie to Pierre (this is not the Yanktonais Chief, who didn't follow Harneys call).
Post by kingsleybray on Nov 20, 2016 16:50:56 GMT -5
One Who Uses His Heart For All is a headman who gets a few namechecks through the 1860s and 70s. I can't get at my notes right now, but I think he belonged to the Talonapin (Raw Meat Necklace) band of Hunkpapas.
Big Head was a headman in the Southern or Kiyuksa Oglalas. He belonged to a prominent family of the Kuhinyan sub-band. He is mentioned a few times in the 1850s, then seems to disappear from the scene. The main or most visible player in Kuhinyan is then Whistler, until his death in 1872. A younger Big Head (Nasula Tanka, literally it means Big Brain), born about 1826, was a shirt wearer among the Southern Oglala in the late 1860s-70s. Possibly a son or nephew of the older man.
In March 1856 at Fort Pierre, Nebraska Territory (now South Dakota), General William Harney held a council with Lakota, Yanktonais, and Yankton Dakotas to end his campaign against them, and establish a centralized (principle chief) tribal government by which he could hold individual leaders accountable for future 'transgressions' against Americans.The following list was given by the chiefs, transcibed from the original council minutes:
Little Thunder's Brules Iron Shell Swift Bear White Black Bird The Standing Bear The Bull Man The One That Smokes Four Times The Black Horn The Stabber The Medicine Cap
One Horn's Miniconjous The Elk That Hollows Walking The One That Makes Room The One That Flies Away The Fire Thunder The One That Shoots The Bear Running The Standing Bear No Heart The Iron Horn The One That Kills The First
Crow Feather's Sans Arcs The Big Brain The Grass Dog The Yellow Hawk The Bull Man The Red War Eagle Feather The Black Magpie The Wear Out The One That Leaves Alone The High One
Fire Heart's Blackfeet Lakotas The One That They Use For Their Shield The One That Runs The Bear The Stone That Has Horns The Long Dog The War Eagle That Is High The Two Hearts The One Whose Track Rattles When He Walks The Black Shield The Soldier
Bear Rib's Hunkpapas The Four Horns The Hawk With A Big Voice The Tall Soldier The One That Shoots When He Walks The One They Have To Run [?] The One Who Uses His Heart For All The Iron Wing The Sitting Bear The Spotted Elk
Black Catfish's Yanktonais The Fool Heart The Red Bull The One That Paints Himself Red The Soldier The Medicine Bear The Yellow Robe, or, The Nest That Wears A Face The One Who Has His Lodge Inside Of The RIng The Black Elk Who Wears The Medicine Face The One That Runs Close By
Long Mandan's Two Kettles The Chief The Red Spear In a Handle The White Hawk The White Buffalo War Eagle The Little Bull The Red War Eagle The Long Dog The Brave The Four Bears
Two Bear's Yanktonais Bone Neck-lace The Man Who Killed The Mandan Chief The White Bear The Mad Bear The Man That Has The Arrow Broke In Him The Buck The One That Runs The Bear The One That's Full Of Lice The Little Soldier
Struck By Ree's Yanktons Smutty Bear The Medicine Standing Cow The Bear That Lays Down The Dog's Claw The Handsome Young Man The Sitting Crow The One That Flies Quick The White Buck Elk The Sailing Hawk
To round out the list here of Lakota & Dakota chiefs at the Ft. Pierre Council, 1856: Oglala representatives arrived a month later, in April. Official documents list Mischief Maker as the principle headman, ahead of Man Afraid Of His Horse. Mischief Maker was Bad Wound's nickname. The Lakota name in the documents ("O-wha-shee-cha") actually spells Bad Wound (Owa Shicha), but for some reason they noted his nickname down in English, which led to some confusion among later historians (eg. Price, "Oglala People: A Political History", 43; Chaky, "Terrible Justice", 67.)