Brave Bear, itancan and former shirt wearer, was a prominent Oglala leader. He signed the 1868 treaty and traveled to Washington a year later with other Lakota heavy hitters. He supposedly was a proponent of peace with the US.
It is said that his sons were Red Cloud's nephews, so Brave Bear was Red Cloud's brother in law, married to one of his sisters.
But do we have any more details about Brave Bear? I'm specifically interested in his sons; we know two of them, Sword Owner and Hunts The Enemy/Enemy's Bait (George Sword), but did he have any others?
I'm working on a story from 1861/1863, when an Oglala warrior named Sword was killed in a battle with the Crows. Red Cloud was in this battle and he left us a detailed report (Eli Paul 1997). This Sword was a "nephew of Red Cloud" and the story states that George Sword took his name after his death, but this is obviously incorrect as George Sword actually took the name of his older brother and shirt wearer Sword Owner in 1877, after his death in 1876. Could this Sword killed in 1861/1863 be their older brother? In that case, Sword Owner actually took his older brother's name, which was in turn taken by George Sword. So three brothers were named Sword at some time in their lives. This would make perfect sense to me, but do we have any additional proof?
Post by kingsleybray on Mar 20, 2012 5:15:12 GMT -5
ok Carlo, you asked for it! Here is my working paper on the Brave Bear-Sword family. The detailed genealogy, listing Brave Bear's wives and their children, is taken from the George Sword interview material given to James R. Walker, transcripts at the Colorado Historical Society and in the Ella Deloria papers. Ray DeMallie is editing the George Sword mss for publication by the Smithsonian Institution.
In the 19th Century the Bad Face, or Ite Sica band was one of the most prominent bands in the Oglala tribe. In this paper I shall first try to reconstruct its history in the 19th Century, centring on the tiwahe that I think was the core of the band, that associated with the Sword-Owner brothers and their father Brave Bear (ca. 1815-74).
In the Pine Ridge Census of 1890 all Pine Ridge families were listed by their reservation district (White Clay, Wounded Knee, Porcupine, and Medicine Root), and then within district by their Community. These communities were with few exceptions the tiyospaye or lodge-groups – clusters of extended families linked by blood, marriage and hunka. Most descendants of the Bad Face band settled in the White Clay District, including the famous chief Red Cloud. It is interesting that by 1890 the name was already going into disuse, and most Bad Faces were listed under other Community names – Flat Bottle (Red Cloud’s tiyospaye); Hoka-yuta (No Water’s tiyospaye); and Sore-Backs (He Dog’s tiyospaye). All these tiyospaye had been identified with the Bad Face band in the 1850-75 period, when the band peaked at 100 or more lodges (600+ people).
In 1890 only four families, fifteen people are actually listed as belonging to the Ite Sica Community. These included two families of in-married traders or ‘half-breeds’ (James Janis and Charles Giroux), plus the household of the Captain of the Pine Ridge Indian Police, George Sword (1847-1910). The fact that he was uniquely identified with the Bad Face name strongly suggests that the original core lineage of the Bad Faces lay within the ancestry of George Sword. What can we record of this family?
Bear Runs Fearless, 1815-1874
Fundamental to this study is George Sword’s own statement, made in documents prepared for Pine Ridge physician James R. Walker. Translated by Ella Deloria, ‘Sword’s acts related’ states that he was one of the children of the Oglala chief commonly called Brave Bear. His name, Mato Kagisni Inyanke, literally means Bear Runs Fearless. He was also called Shot in the Eye. According to his own statement in Washington, June 11, 1870, he was then “55 years of age”, therefore born ca. 1814-15. (A statement by his son Afraid of Bear indicates that Brave Bear was older – born in the Winter When the Good White Man Came – ca. 1802: Walker, Lakota Belief and Ritual, p. 201.) His names were given for his exploits in war, and we know that by 1840 Brave Bear was a blotahunka or war-party leader: in Red Cloud’s Autobiography he records a warpath against the Crows in which Brave Bear and Old Man Afraid of His Horse were the pipe-owners. From his exploits the family became wealthy – his father owned “many horses and fine ones”, remembered Sword. An accomplished orator, Brave Bear was recognised as a chief in 1856, and by the mid-60’s was the Bad Face band’s principal peace chief.
Brave Bear married two sisters. Four Times Hunka, the eldest, was a virgin when they married “in the most honorable manner” – that is, through gift exchange arranged by the two families. The younger sister, Returns Last, was “a mere girl”, but she subsequently married Brave Bear also, as was accepted practice when a man had married the elder sister by gift exchange. The generational spread of the children indicates that the first marriage took place ca. 1835-36.
The two wives were sisters of Red Cloud III (1821-1909), and daughters of Red Cloud I and his wife Walks As She Thinks. Red Cloud I was the son of Two Arrows, a leader in the Miwatani Society and a headman in the Kuhinyan band of Oglalas. Walks As She Thinks was the sister of Smoke, an important man in the Tasnaheca, Ground-Squirrel band of Oglalas. (Smoke’s father Parts of Body, and grandfather Looking Walker were originally Sihasapa, Blackfoot Lakota.) In the period 1800-25 both the Kuhinyan and Tasnaheca tiyospayes were part of a larger band, the Kiyuksa or Kiyaksa band, whose leadership was focused on the brothers Bull Bear and Mad Dog. Mad Dog, born ca. 1785, probably had married a daughter of Two Arrows, their son (killed 1837) being Red Cloud II.
(A 1923 statement by V. T. McGillycuddy claims that Bull Bear was “a brother of Red Cloud[‘]s mother”, and therefore an uncle (leksi) to Red Cloud. This would make Bull Bear and Smoke ‘brothers’. While certainly not biological brothers, it may be that the family of Smoke’s mother was connected to that of Bull Bear, again likely on the mother’s side. It would make sense that Bull Bear’s father had married an Oglala woman of the Tasnaheca band, explaining Walker’s tabulation of the Tasnaheca as Bull Bear’s band. Parts of Body married a Tasnaheca woman ten or so years later, conceivably a kinswoman (‘sister’) to Bull Bear’s mother, to whom Smoke was born.)
His names were given for his exploits in war, and we know that by 1840 Brave Bear was a blotahunka or war-party leader: in Red Cloud’s Autobiography he records a warpath against the Crows in which Brave Bear and Old Man Afraid of His Horse were the pipe-owners.
This encounter took place in late April or early May 1843, and is significant for this thread because Bear Runs Fearless saved twenty-one year old Red Cloud and his young Miniconjou comrade from getting a beating by the other warriors for going to the Crow village in advance of the group without them knowing. Angry warriors were already riding towards them with their quirts raised, but Man Afraid Of His Horse and Bear Runs Fearless called them off. The fact that Bear Runs Fearless was Red Cloud’s brother-in-law likely saved the two warriors from receiving a beating!
In reply #1 above we have 2 brothers; Red Cloud 1 and Lone Man. Red Cloud 1 = Red Cloud's 3 biological father who died in 1820 or 1821 before Red Cloud 3 was born. Lone Man = Red Cloud's 3 stepfather and uncle.
Is this Lone Man the same Lone Man who was killed at Chugwater Creek in 1841 in the same fight as when Bull Bear was killed ?
If not: 1. When did Lone Man (Red Cloud's 3 stepfather) die ? 2. What was the family background of Lone Man who was killed in 1841 at Chugwater Creek ?
The above from reply #1 would fit to what Wendell Smoke wrote in the thread Chief Smoke and his family: