I'm quite confused now. I know your source must be right for it is Cap. J. Alton Sladen' s journal and you say that:
" ..Jeffords was named agent of the future reservation of the Chiricahuas, by howard. the two thought it would be in cañada Alamosa. the fact that Jeffords was already named favored to convince Cochise."
If you mean to convince Cochise to accept that, I though that in order to achieve a peace treaty with the Apaches, Howard had to accept Cochise's taxative conditions about Jeffords being the agent and the reservation being placed in Sulphur Springs including Dragoon Mountains, Az. Being honest I don't remember where or when I have read it, so Cap. Sladen must be right and it was stablished in New Mex, not in Dragoon Mountains. Thanks for the info. All very interesting
There was peace with Thomas Jonathan Jeffords as an agent but in 1876 the Apaches killed N. Rogers who illegally sold them liquor and it was decided to close the reservation. In 1877 agent Clum asked Commissioner Smith permission to remove the Apaches to San Carlos and it was authorised if the military authorities were present to make it effective. He invited Geronimo to a meeting and he assist with 50 of his warriors, children and some women. The army officer Beauford was waiting for them with his 80 policies and arrested some of them (Fatty? and Chatto among them I think) Same happened with other group of Apaches. Finally, they could not discuss about not going to San Carlos reservation because the next day ( April 24 ) major Wade arrived with his soldiers companies losing then any choice.
*You can't tame the Spirit of someone who has Magic in their veins
Post by coeurrouge on Sept 30, 2019 13:41:40 GMT -5
1.5. “Tatte Grande” Howard and “Bueno Amigo” Sladen.
His band on lack of food, without good and enough clothes, with few strong horses, Goci planned raids to steal these needs for the winter, while the main part of the Chokonens lived in the Dragoon Mountains stronghold. It seemed, the chief sent his headmen on several missions, after 15th of September 1872. As I guess, Goyakla went on a raid between New Mexico and Chihuahua north of Janos maybe joining his friend Tandinbilnojui, I think Kla-esch, his brother Ulzanna and Cathla went south of the Chiricahuas Mountains to raid north of Sonora or south of Arizona. Eskinye, his brother Pionsonnay and their followers went south of Arizona, far west than Kla-esch group. Nahilzay maybe was in charge to steal castle or horses near Fort Crittenden. Taza was sent deep in Sonora with his warriors. Nah-dozine was in charge to watch east of Apache Pass north of Dzisl-lnoi-bi-yi-tu, near Midway Peak, and to alert if US troops come from New Mexico. Tygee had the same mission west of the Dragoon Mountains and Atelnietze’s mother on the eastside of those mountains.
One of Goci’s wives left the rancheria with Nah-dozine little group. I think she was the sister of Nahilzay who joined Nah-dozine maybe because one of her daughters was married with Nah-dozine and was called Ee-lodl-lahm. Goci ordered to not kill Americans especially soldiers to avoid retaliations. They could steal castle and horses in Arizona but away from the ranchéria.
26th of September 1872, scouts from Nah-dozine’s warriors watched a strange group of riders. It was composed of two Apache warriors, two soldiers and three White Eyes. This group camped near the Gila River. At night Nah-dozine’s scouts made some coyote screams and the Apaches from the strange group answered by same screams. They left the camp looking for the scouts who preferred to flee, fearing the worst, and to report to Nah-dozine certainly. I think, this headman sent a messenger to Goci to alert the chief that riders would come from New Mexico, surely by Nakibitci. 27th of September 1872, Nah-dozine and his warriors followed the strangers all the day. The two Apaches made smoke signals, while travelling west, to signify they were friends with peaceful thoughts. These two warriors seemed Chihennes and perhaps, the Chokonens identified Chie this day. The evening, approaching Midway Peak, the two Chihennes screamed again like a coyote. The Chokonens answered and soon the two Chihennes separated from the other strangers and came in the camp. They were Chie and Ponce Junior. The two explained they travelled with Daya-ti-tcidn in mission to allow the soldiers to meet Goci. One of the soldiers was a “Tatte Grande” who had a peace proposal from US government to Goci. Chie and Ponce Junior invited the Chokonens in their camp. Surely in confidence of Chie, Nah-dozine and his group followed cautiously the two Chihennes. The Americans shared their meal which was very appreciated by the Chokonens who were hungry. Howard explained surely that he wanted to reunited all the Chiricahuas on a reservation in peace at Ojo Caliente, but he had to convince Goci. Nah-dozine expressed his doubts about this peace. He suggested Howard to go talking with Goci only with Chie, Ponce Junior and Jeffords. He indicated Goci camped in the Dragoon Mountains. Like the others Apaches he protested when Sladen announced he joined his superior but Howard took his subordinate to continue. All together they spent the night around a warm fire.
28th of September 1872, Howard, Sladen, and Jeffords guided by Chie and Ponce Junior said goodbye to Nah-dozine’s group and continued in direction of Nakibitci. Half of the White Eyes went directly to Fort Bowie across Horseshoe’s Canyon. After the sunset, the strange group arrived on the foot of Nakibitci. Few hours before, if Nah-dozine sent a messenger, he arrived in Goci’s ranchéria and reported what he knew. Seven riders came from New Mexico and would certainly arrive on Nakibitci summit, next day. On this group they were two soldiers and seemed be guided by Chiricahuas Apaches. This news was a surprise because no Chiricahua travelled side to side of blue soldiers, except when they were prisoners. Goci certainly asked the purpose of this group but the messenger would be unable to say. Goci surely ordered the sentries on the eastern stronghold to watch carefully of a little group of riders at Nakibitci, thirty miles away.
29th of September 1872, the sentries saw the appearance of five riders descending from Nakibitci and travelling to the Sulphur Springs stagecoach station. They followed during all day with their eyes this group. As expert observers they certainly reported that they were three White Eyes and two Apaches and the last time they looked for them before the night, they were at the stagecoach station. It was sure the story of two Chiricahuas warriors riding with American soldiers was in all the mouth of Goci’s people, with this question without answer, why?
30th of September 1872, Goci’s sentries watched Howard’s group entered on the Dragoon Mountains by the west side. Quickly the two warriors were surely identified as Chie and Ponce Junior. Daya-ti-tcidn was the White Eye and one of the two soldiers seemed to be an important chief who had only one arm. Reported to Goci, the chief certainly ordered to let them go and see what happened. He may ordered Tygee to intercept the riders before they arrived on the western stronghold. At lunch, the riders stopped and camped following the wish of their guides, five miles southeast of the western stronghold. Soon Chie quitted them and came right to the stronghold. In the same time, near camp Crittenden, several Chokonens warriors ambushed six soldiers and killed four. They were led by Eskinye and Pionsonnay, I think. The “brother” of Naiche encountered Tygee’s group who indicated him Goci was five miles north. Chie was certainly welcome by his family. And soon Goci questioned him about the blue soldiers who he guided to the stronghold. Chie presented the two soldiers in good terms as men who treated the Chiricahuas as Human Beings. He surely said General Howard was a man with great faith on his god, like the Chiricahuas believed deeply on Usen. When Goci asked why they came him here to meet him. Chie explained the “Tatte Grande” went to make peace with the Chokonens and proposed them to live in the same reservation at Ojo Caliente, with the Chiricahuas living in Tularosa. Their agent would be Daya-ti-tcidn. Apparently, Goci ordered Tygee to welcome in his camp the strangers for the night. The tomorrow morning, he, Goci, would visit them accompanied by his brother, his sister, Yones and Naiche. Then, he would discuss with the “Tatte Grande” and would judge if the soldier’s chief was truthful. While Chie returned with two young Chokonens among his fellow riders to announce Goci would meet them the tomorrow, Naiche certainly assisted on conversation between Goci and the rest of his family, mostly the women, to decide what his father would say to Howard. It seemed to the Chief Ojo Caliente was no more an option of a reservation because of the events the previous year and the fact that the Chihennes and the Chokonens had mortal fights there. He understood if he accepted, he would lose the unity of the Chokonens and the control on Goyakla and the Nednhis. Even if he was in peace at Ojo Caliente, war would continue and the peace would certainly end short. Apparently Goci decided to propose Apache Pass for the reservation of his band.
1st of October 1872, on the morning Naiche follow his father, his uncle Juan, Atelnietze’s mother and Yones moving to Tygee’s camp. Apparently, all were well dressed. Naiche may be exited to meet soldiers at peace even if the last time he accompanied his father on peace talks with soldiers, it was his worst experience of his life. But it was nearly twelve years earlier, he was a young boy and in soldier’s camp. In 1872, it was different, he was just a warrior and it would be the soldiers who were surrounded by Chokonen warriors. Goci talked two hours with the riders. He asked Howard why he came. He answered he came to make peace and invited Goci and his band to install in a reservation at Ojo Caliente. Goci replied he was agreed to make peace too but he also said the majority of his band would refuse if the reservation would be in New Mexico. Goci promised if the reservation was in Apache Pass, peace would be real in USA. Howard did not close this option but insisted that Ojo Caliente was a better location. After the talking it was decided to wait Goci’s headmen to have the final decision of peace and the location of the reservation. To respond to Goci’s asking, Howard would go to Fort Bowie with Chie to order the blue soldiers a cease fire to ensure the success of his mission. Everybody moved to the ranchéria of Goci on the western stronghold of the Dragoon Mountains. When Howard and Chie left the camp, Goci sent messengers to his headmen to cease depredations and came back as soon as they could to assist of an important council. At night fall, a fest was organized. Sladen and Jeffords were invited to participate at the dance. Naiche participated surely too and have fun like the young warrior he was. When Sladen went to bed, Naiche came soon after, with only a loin cloth, asking the lieutenant to share his blanket because the nights were cold in the mountain. Sladen accepted.
2nd of October 1872, Daya-ti-tcidn and Sladen shared the breakfast of Goci’s family, prepared by Dos-teh-seh. This day two headmen returned, first Nahilzay and just in the evening, I guess Pionsonnay with one wounded announcing their killing of four soldiers which enraged Goci. Soon after, to secure the people, Goci moved the camp for the night on the flank of the mountain.
3rd of October 1872, Howard, Chie and the rest of Howard’s delegation arrived from Fort Bowie with a wagon of food. Goci stayed on the flank of the mountain another day waiting the threat of an attack was gone.
4th to 10th of October 1872, the ranchéria came back on the stronghold waiting the return of all the headmen and their warriors. During this time the White Eyes and the Chokonens learnt to know each other better. Naiche made honor to his name. He was most of his time with the American guests of his father. Howard learnt Naiche to write his name. the young son of Goci particularly liked Sladen and the lieutenant felt the same way about the young warrior. Naiche inspected each object, clothes, habits of Sladen by curiosity. The two tried to teach their language to the other. Naiche explained to Sladen mainly by gesture that the game was scarce and they were often hungry. They also slept bad always fearing a night attack by soldiers and they had to move often and be scattered to avoid these attacks. Naiche, speaking some words of Spanish, called the lieutenant Sladen, “Bueno Amigo”. Gradually as the headmen returned in the ranchéria, it was obvious for Howard it would be hard to convince all the Chokonens to live at Ojo Caliente. To give a chance to peace, the wish of Goci to create a reservation near Apache Pass was the only way. The chief was upset because among the two headmen that the messengers could not join was his son Taza. Goci would want, always of the idea of succession, Taza assisted on the council. When Goyakla arrived, 10th of October, it was finally decided to begin the council the next day.
11th of October 1872, Goci and his headmen had a council first without the White Eyes. At this council were present ten leaders. They seemed to be, by order of their influence, Eskinye, Goyakla, Kla-esch, Nahilzay, Cathla, Tygee, Ulzanna, Pionsonnay, Nah-dozine and Nah-zar-ree. They certainly talked the conditions of peace and mostly about the location of their reservation. They expressed their agreement of peace with the Americans and they choose their old territory for their reservation. I think it was Goci and his headmen who defined the borders of the new reservation maybe with the help of Jeffords. Why the southern border was the same with Sonora? Maybe because it included all the Chokonen territory in USA. Or maybe Goci knew they were still at war against the Mexicans and his warriors would leave the reservation to raid in Sonora. Blue soldiers considered Apaches outside reservations as hostiles and fought them. If there was US country between the southern border of the reservation and the Mexican border, fights between Chokonen’s warriors and blue soldiers would occur and blood would certainly shed. In that case peace would not exist a long time. With the southern border of the reservation contiguous with the Mexican border, Chokonen’s raiders and blue soldiers would never meet. Or maybe, Goyakla, Eskinye and others explained that if they could not make war to the hatred Mexicans freely, war with the White Eyes would continue. And Goyakla surely added that with this border, he could attract all the Nednhis in the reservation avoiding them to raid in Arizona and then, ensured the peace. Next they had talks with Howard. Goyakla served as N’de-Spanish interpreter while Howard had his Spanish-English interpreter, Jacob May. Howard accepted all the conditions of Goci and his headmen. The deal was the government would give food and clothes to the Chokonens and Jeffords would be their agent. Goci promised none of his warriors would never make depredations in USA any more. He and his warriors would protect the Tucson – Mesilla ‘s road across the reservation. Howard announced that the only soldiers on the reservation would be the ones from Fort Bowie. The agency would be near Apache Pass. Goci wanted a more formal treaty council the next day with some officers of Fort Bowie, Howard agreed.
12th of October 1872, the formal council took place at Dragoon’s Springs. Goci was present with his headmen and fifty warriors. On the US side, were General Howard, Colonel Sumner, Captain Haskell, Lieutenant Sladen, Doctor Orr, Jeffords and May. The conditions of the treaty were recalled and the peace was officially made this day, just in oral terms. Soon after, the peace riders left the Chokonens. Naiche was sad that “Bueno Amigo” was gone. Lieutenant Sladen was certainly the only American whom Naiche was friend across his life. The Chokonens put a white flag along the Tucson’s road to indicate to the travelers they could ride safely. And 16th of October 1872, Jeffords distributed for the first-time food to the Chokonens. In few days, all the Chokonens were living in the reservation.
Jeffords hired an adjoint, Fred Hughes and they build their agency at Sulphur Springs. Goci asked his “son” Chie and Ponce Junior to look for their family and come back. They had also to bring back Cheva and Nay-zar-zee’s gotas. But the agent in Tularosa would not allow that. Goci sent Goyakla to convince the Nednhis to live in the reservation. 20th of November 1872, Goyakla returned with the Nednhis. At pinery Canyon their chiefs, Tandinbilnojui, Natiza (Eligio?) and Nolgee met Jeffords, Hughes and Goci and accepted the peace, its conditions and to live in the reservation.
Finally, War between the Chiricahuas and the Americans was over!
NEXT : 2. The best period of Naiche’s life.
Last Edit: Oct 2, 2019 9:10:53 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
“...chiefs, Tandinbilnojui, Natiza (Eligio?) and Nolgee met Jeffords...” It was long time that I didn’t hear that name: Tan-Dɨn-Bɨl-No-Jui - I think his name was shortened later remaining the last syllable. Chief Juh ( Whoa, Ju).He was also known as Ya-Natch-Cln - presumably"See Far", “He sees ahead”. Really interesting narration, thanks so much.
Post by coeurrouge on Oct 29, 2019 15:55:07 GMT -5
2. The best period of Naiche’s life.
For the Chiricahuas living in the new reservation, the time was finally to think about other things than raids to feed and to clothe the people, to take guns and ammunitions and to fear a soldiers’ attack. They lived for the first time from eight years safely in their territory. Their agent fed, understood them and did not bore them by rules like counting or trying to teach farming. The warriors could go on expeditions in Mexico knowing their family were in a secure location and fed. Those time was certainly appreciated by Naiche. Most of his childhood, he was educated by the women of his family, the men were dead or often outside the ranchéria on war or raid expedition. Seeing his mother, his sisters and the other women be cooler than before, Naiche understood peace with the Americans, in USA, was the only way to live for his band. The facts that he was no hungry anymore and that he could sleep deeply again in the Chokonen’s territory, surely convinced him. Now adult, Naiche became physically out of the apache standard. He looked very much like his father with 6”01’ (1,85 meters) tall and around 175 pounds (80 kilograms) weight. His brother Taza was smaller, 5”10’ but heavier with 220 pounds (100 kilograms). Naiche was known, along his life, as the most handsome man of his tribe and seemed to have success with women.
As Goci and Dos-teh-seh’s son, he was always aware to be well dress and to get imposing bearing to honor his blood line, especially when he met American officials. Naiche was a good warrior, well trained by his mentor, Goyakla. He seemed to be accurate with guns and rifles. With his own people, Naiche liked to have fun by dancing, feasting and drinking. His behavior was not different from the other warriors of his age. Adult he was respectful of the Chiricahuas traditions, of others people and of his social place as a warrior. He followed the principles taught by his parents and he never showed, during all his life, rancor against someone of his tribe. He was loyal to his family, band and tribe.
As a warrior, unlike his brother, he was one of the most peaceful Chokonen man of his generation. He certainly got this mind by his childhood experiences and by the fact he was mostly educated by the women of his family. He was less active and fierce than Atelnietze or his father. If, during the 1870s and the 1880s, he was influenced by older leaders, especially Goyakla, I think, he was less than it was told because he showed strong character in dramatic moments. With the White Eyes Naiche had an opposite behavior than with his own people. He was very cautious and distrustful with the Americans. Maybe by copy of his father but more surely it was his own experience with the White Eyes that got him this behavior. Along his life he always avoided them as possible. With them he acted with a sincerity ducted only by duty and responsibility. He seemed to have trust only two Americans, Thomas Jeffords and George Wratten. Taza was more opened mind with the White Eyes. Naiche, like all the Chiricahuas, hated the Mexicans.
When the reservation’s time began for the Chokonens, Naiche was a young warrior, happy to sleep well and to not be worried anymore about attacks on the ranchéria. His father let Taza in charge to maintain the peace in the reservation. Goci’s authority, even his health declined, was still strong and followed by the Chiricahuas living in the reservation. Thomas Jeffords did, as well as he could, his job and he had hard times. The administration did not make easy to give annuities and Jeffords had to struggle often to have the food he wanted, but clothes and blankets were in lack. But the Chiricahuas, fed, hunting, harvesting, raiding did not care much what problems had their agent, he was a good and trustful man. Very soon American officials had doubts about the sincerity of Goci and his men. After more than ten years of constant warfare in Arizona, it was logical. Governor Safford visited the chief in December 1872, to judge by himself how sincere was Goci. After the meeting he was convinced. By the local press he communicated to his citizens, his opinion and what he saw. Like others local citizens, military and civil officials, he understood the Chokonens were at peace, very well managed by their agent Jeffords, they would not go in war again, against USA, if the government respected his promises. All of this people also knew the Chiricahuas would not stop their forays in Mexico and the south boundary of the reservation made easy these expeditions. They all understood that these apaches did not consider themselves, defeated.
The peace agreement between Goci and Howard contained two misunderstood by US government. Firstly, for the American policy the Chokonens were, since November 1872, defeated and reservation Indians and had to respect the rules edited by Washington. For the Chiricahuas, they accepted peace because they were exhausted of war but not defeated. They accepted to lose their freedom in USA and to live in a reservation only because they choose their territory as reservation and if the government fed them. But they would not allow to be disarmed, to be counted each week, to be taught their way of life and the militaries to act in their reservation. Secondly, Goci and his men did not make peace, and did not want to, with Mexicans. At this time, Mexico was a perpetual enemy. Like said Goci “Americans were a side of the story, Mexicans were another side”, all the Chiricahuas considered themselves at war against Mexico. They did not understand why US officials acted as their father, wanted to forbid them to fight their hatred enemy. The warriors were not children anymore. This second misunderstood became a regular controversy between Goci, Jeffords and the US government. This one was impatient. The Indian administration, forgotten this native people lived in a total warfare from ten years, wanted that soon the creation of the reservation, the warriors learnt to be farmer, changed their behaviors and mainly stopped raiding. At first, the administration had to give to Jeffords the means to do a good job to please the Apaches he had to care. But they failed to help their agent by not pay his salary, not provide enough food or other things.
Stop the raids immediately in Mexico was impossible for the Chiricahuas for many reasons. After a decade of war, the people knew an only way of life mostly Naiche’s generation. Such leaders like Eskinye did not want to change, others like Tandinbilnojui or Goyakla would fight the Mexicans as long as they lived. And some, stressed after such a long time of war, needed violence to live like the Chokonen Pionsonay or the Chihenne Parajito. Also, the Indian Administration provided not enough clothes, blankets and others supplies that the Chiricahuas needed or wanted. So, they raided in Mexico to get these things and better horses. But the main obstacle to cease the raids was social traditions. For the puberty’s ceremony, the na-hi-es, of their girls, the families had to give gifts to the guests. More the family had to give more the ceremony was considered blessed and the family respected. Only by raiding the family could get the quantity of supplies they wanted. With the peace and the safety reservation, the quantity of gifts given increased. The other social interest of raiding was for the boys. A teenage boy could be a warrior only if he had participated, as a dikohe, to his four expeditions. A young warrior could marry only if he proved he could provide what any future family-in-law needed. A married warrior had to lead some successful raids to upgrade his warrior’s status. A leader, to maintain his position, had to be in capacity to share his belongings to the people. Also, raids were not considered war actions by the Chiricahuas. All these social traditions made raids a part of the way of the Chiricahuas’s life.
Goci knew it and if all the forays were executed in Mexico and none one in USA, the chief would be glad and his band still united. He certainly knew that in the next years, the raids in Mexico would have to end. But at the beginning of 1873, much of his warriors had to retaliate a relative killed or captured by Mexicans. In his mind the priority was to convince all the Americans he was sincere of his peace’s wishes. 27th march of 1873, Naiche accompanied his father, his brother and some of his family to Fort Bowie for an amical visit. Goci only wanted to show friendly behavior with the soldiers who fought his band so strongly during the past six years. They have lunch in Delong’s store and were well welcome by each guest which seemed to please Goci. Around the same period, two Sonoran officers came to obtain peace with Goci. Since the peace treaty with Howard, some raids were made by the Chokonens and the Nednhis. If Goci did not plan it, he let his warriors did what they wanted in Mexico. With the two Mexican officers Goci was courteous but he did not accept to make peace with them, minimizing the numbers of his warriors who participated of the raids. Goci certainly forbade Naiche to go raiding in Mexico but not other warriors. So, these warriors thought they had the chief’s blessing to go on forays in Mexico.
Also in march, a lot of Chiricahuas from Tularosa came at the Chiricahua Reservation with officials passes from their agent. Chie and his family visited his uncle for three months. Kas-tziden’s gota came because they were certainly invited by Goyakla and others to a big foray in Mexico. Kas-tziden was just here to visit his brother-in-law for several months. Also invited, Nay-zar-zee’s gota went in the reservation on the idea to stay definitively, near Piñery canyon with Goyakla’s gota. With Nay-zar-zee was an old childhood’s friend of Naiche, Pedes-kinjle. I think it was at this time that Ischi (Perico) and Pedes-kinjle became the trust warriors in second of Goyakla.
Th great expedition left the reservation, last May 1873. They were between one hundred and one hundred and thirty warriors from all the gotas living in the reservation at this time. Their leaders were, I think, Eskinye, Kla-esch and maybe Nahilzay for the Chokonens; Goyakla, Nay-zar-zee for the Bedonkohes; Tandinbilnojui, Natiza and Nolgee for the Nednhis; Nonithian and Rafael for the Chihennes. A lot of young warriors participated to this foray. It was certainly a frustrating period for Naiche because as a young warrior, he surely wanted to improve his skills by joining raiders’ group but he was not allowed by his father. And plenty of his friends could participate like Tah-ni-toe or Pedes-kinjle. The raiders attacked settlements in Chihuahua and Sonora. They returned a month later, successful, with plunder, ammunitions, money, horses and one captive boy. If they stole castle, they sold it in Janos to avoid to much questions. They have certainly killed more than twenty people during their expedition. Knowing Goyakla had the captive, Jeffords with the support of Goci succeeded to get back to his relatives, the young captive. But it was not without restlessness. There were strong protestations from Mexico side, mainly from Sonora.
After the big foray, in July, Kas-tziden came back at his reservation but some people of his gota stayed at Piñery Canyon under Nonithian, son of Tudeevia and Goyakla’s relative by his marriage. Kas-tziden found Tularosa’s reservation in turmoil. Enable to have enough annuities, the agent lost control of the Chihennes. Inveterate warriors did some raids in New Mexico and had deadly fights with soldiers. The chief named, Bi-duye could not managed these men among them his son-in-law, Parajito. The agent dismissed Bi-duye and named Jlin-tay-i-tith,chief of the reservation. The new chief tried first to arrest the last leader of a raid, Tah-ho-klisn, but he failed. Tah-ho-klisn had already fled and found refuge in Nonithian ranchéria in the Chirircahua reservation. Attracted by successful raids, Miguel Tuerto and his group joined them. But with the help of Kas-tziden , Jlin-tai-i-tith took in charge the Baishan’s sons. Parajito and his brothers were continual, violent, trouble makers. On 24th of August 1873, a deadly fight happened in Bi-duye’s camp. Parajito and one of his brothers were killed, the others two wounded as Bi-duye, by Jlin-tay-i-tith and Kas-tziden’s men. Those fight ended for a time the problems but dug a deep pit between Bi-duye and Jlin-tay-i-tith. The Parajito’s death let Dilth-Cleyhen, Bi-duye’s daughter, as a widow with two young girls named Bes-hade and Chestuen.
Soon after, Chiva and his gota, who had enough living in this haunted and trouble reservation arrived, in last August 1873, at the Chiricahua’s reservation with some Chihenne’s families. Goci was happy to welcome his old friend Chiva but he also saw renowned raiders like Benito and She-neah arrived. Goci and Jeffords understood they had to do something to decrease raids. Jeffords moved, during the summer, the agency in San Simon, closer to Fort Bowie but this location was a bad place because some children had already died from malaria. He thought to move again in a healthy place. In his mind, if he was near Piñery Canyon, he would be next to the raiders’ ranchérias and he would better control them.
NEXT : 2.2. Married and the father, Goci, died.
Last Edit: Oct 30, 2019 12:29:10 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
At the end of the 1873’s summer, Goci and Jeffords by recovering some stolen stock from Apaches in the reservation, tried to convince American officials they did something to stop raids in Mexico. They thought it would be enough but they were wrong. US officials wanted no more one raid in Mexico. The superior of Jeffords expressed him that if the raids continued, he had to advice to close the Chiricahua Reservation. In the same time, after admitted Tularosa was not a good place to farm and to administrate the Chihennes, the Indian Administration thought to move back at Ojo Caliente these Chiricahuas. And on the economics’ idea, it was thought to gather all the Chiricahuas on the same reservation. With his south boundary shared with Sonora, the Chiricahua Reservation was a worst option than Ojo Caliente. Learning about those idea, Goci knew that what was true a year before was still the same, his band would scatter if they had to move in another reservation. Like the Chihennes, the Chokonens did not want to live with the other band.
Watching Goci and Jeffords, some chiefs seemed at first to understand to be less active in their raids in Mexico or to be more inconspicuous. Others, as certainly Natiza, thought Goci with his poor health was no more able to oppose on raids. So, the acts on late summer by Jeffords and Goci did not persuade much the raiders to end their expeditions on the hatred Mexicans. The two friends understood they have to act clearly with strong authority. Jeffords finally move his agency at Piñery Canyon near Kla-esch ‘s gota, the Nednhis and the Bedonkohes. Goci summed in the same time, around 1st of November 1873, all the warriors at San Simon agency for a council. The purpose of this council was to inform about the new location of the agency but mainly to give an ultimatum. Goci proved again his power on his band and on the Apaches living on the reservation.
Goci ordered to stop raids on any settlement in USA or Mexico from any warrior who wanted to live in his reservation. He certainly clearly explained that chief, headman or warrior from any gota who would continue to raid, while living in the Chiricahuas reservation, would have strong punishment, perhaps death, by his followers. He said, also, any warrior who did not agree with his order, would have to leave the reservation. The council was surely tense and maybe Natiza provoked Goci’s authority. But the Chokonens preferred to not disobey their beloved and feared chief and in a potential fight with the Nednhis, they would be on a total support of Goci. The chief’s power was still strong and all the raids, from the reservation, almost ended.
Maybe because of some homesick and not ready to stop his affairs with the Mexicans, Tandinbilnojui led his gota south and quitted the reservation in December. His schedule was to ask for a truce in Janos which maybe would end in a permanent peace. In a surprising way, Nolgee and Goyakla did not follow him in Mexico. Perhaps Nolgee waited from Tandinbilnojui and Natiza about news allowing to settle in Chihuahua. For Goyakla it was surely a different case. For a long time and except Esquine and his followers, all the Bedonkohes lived in the same and safety place. Chiva losing his leadership on his gota, Goyakla was the main chief of this band. If he had followed his old comrade, he would lose this leadership and his economic advantage in a reservation. By his marriage with She-ga and his promises during the Howard’s treaty, Goyakla was certainly devoted to Goci and try at this time, like other shamans, to heal the great chief.
During the first years of the 1870’s, when the Americans met Goci, they described often two observations. First that Goci had some pain to eat and by the time this was obvious he had a sickness from his digestive’s system. Secondly, Naiche was described as Goci’s lad. Goci having bad experience of poisoning rations in Fronteras or Janos, never ate food delivered by the White Eyes. He still ate wild vegetables, fruits, nuts and wild meat from antelopes or Virginia deers. With the peace, Goci was certainly cooler than before and it was like the sickness was liberated from imprisonment. Then the pain on his belly increased and only tiswin calmed his pain. With the time and the sickness progressing, he drunk more and more tiswin and was often drunk. He, physically, lost his ability to hunt and to do what he could do before. I think, Naiche, during the last nineteen months of Goci’s life, was closer to his father than ever. His father more present, Naiche had several discussions with his father who had shared his knowledge and his opinions of the world surrounding them. Naiche was certainly in charge to provide wild fresh meat to his father, by hunting, to accompany the chief when he left the ranchéria as a lad and a bodyguard.
Seeing the health of his father declined so quickly, surely worried Naiche. On the beginning of 1874, feeling the end of his life coming, Goci tried to save the peace he built. In his mind, Taza would succeed him as the Chokonen band’s chief. But Taza was young and the other chiefs were older than him. The help of the agent Jeffords would not be enough maybe. I think with the advices of Dos-teh-seh, Goci made some kindship between his family and his principal chiefs, to secure the succession and obtained the loyalty from the headmen to Taza and to the Peace. The father of Dos-teh-seh had done these alliances by marrying his daughters to influent or son of influent men from others Chiricahuas band or from other Apache tribes. I think Goci did like his father-in-law. The principal chiefs on the reservation, at this time, were Goyakla, Eskinye, Kla-esch, Nahilzay, Chiva, and Nay-zar-zee.
Taza seemed at this time to be a single widow. And a chief could not be single, he had to be married to be creditable and also to hear from his woman the thinking of the people. Goci to reinforce the kinship with Goyakla, married Taza to E-clah-eh, a fifteen years old woman who one of her parents was Goyakla’s cousin. Goci certainly thought by his marriage with She-ga and the one of Taza, Goyakla would be loyal to the new chief and by his bounds with the Nednhis, he would help to control this band. The other link would be to the large extended family of Eskinye. This man was the principal shaman of the Chokonens and the elder of the chiefs. Ulzanna, Kla-esch’s closest brother, and Cathla were related to Eskinye by marriage. To control his troublemaker’s brother, Pionsonay, Eskinye would need to have interest in the chieftain of Taza and in peace. So, the sixteen years old daughter of Eskinye, Nah-de-yole was married to Naiche, eighteen years old. To have some control on Benito and She-neah, headmen of Chiva’s gota, Goci married his daughter Naithlo-tonz, sixteen years old to Shui-eet, son of Chiva. Nahilzay was part of Goci’s gota and as a brother-in-law of Goci, he would be loyal to Taza. Cathla seemed to be a close friend of Taza. Nay-zar-zee, leading a part of the old gota of Dos-teh-seh’s father, had then some relative of Taza’s mother. He would certainly follow Taza’s orders. Kla-esch was more independent of Goci but respected him and was a man of honor. Some minor chiefs like Nah-dozine, who seemed to be married to a half-sister of Taza, and Tygee were members of Goci’s gota and would support him.
In march 1874, Goci tried a last attempt to heal. Goyakla, Eskinye or the two held a campfire in front of the agency and certainly by songs, asked some help from the Gan’s. Sometimes after, the Chokonens believed their chief was witched by an old Chihenne man living in San Simon. Taza and Goyakla found him and were ready to burn him to allow Goci to heal, but Jeffords interfered and the old Chihenne was spared. Considering with interest the idea of Jeffords’ adjoint, Hughes, about the transfer of the Chokonens with the Chihennes to avoid conflicts with Mexicans, the superintendent of Indian Administration in Arizona visited Goci to summit the idea. The meeting took place in the Eastern stronghold of the Dragoon Mountains, some days before Goci’s death. Even he was lying, suffering hardly, Goci was clear, he would never leave his homeland. He kept his words he had done to Howard, why the Americans thought to change their promises, barely two years after the treaty? He also said that he would soon die and the responsibility to choose to move or not would be to his successor. Jeffords and Hughes protested about the idea of closing the reservation. Jeffords prophesied the closing would scatter the Chiricahuas leaving there and war would surely erupt again. Then the Indian Administration temporized.
Goci had already designated his successor as the head chief of the Chokonen’s band. Preparing this for several years before, he chose his older son, Taza. The other chiefs swore to follow Taza’s lead and to obey to their agent, Jeffords. It made sense for his parents. From his bloodline, his warrior’s activities in the past, the numbers of his supporters and mainly the fact that he truthfully shared the same peaceful view of his father, he was the better choice. But this choice upset Eskinye who surely thought as the elder’s chief living, he had to be the head chief. And it irritated Nahilzay, because he thought his old loyalty, his war chief leads and his capacity to care the gota outdid the ones of Taza. He felt he was not paid off in return. On his dead bed, he asked his two sons several things. To Naiche he asked to be the principal supporter of his brother. To the two he asked them to swear following every time Jeffords’ advices and to stay at peace as long they could do. Naiche and Taza gave their words to the whishes of their father. Feeling death would bring Goci to the Other World, most of the ranchérias of the reservation moved closer to Goci’s camp. On the night between 7th and 8th of June 1874, Goci died from a stomach cancer or some sickness like that.
Even it was in the order of Life that older people died before the youngest, Goci’s death was certainly a tremendous loss for Naiche. During his youth, Naiche certainly did not spend much time with his father because as a head chief he was often outside the camp or when in the ranchéria was busy to take care of everybody in the band. At the moment when Goci had much times to share with his youngest son, he very soon died. Another of Naiche’s mentor had just died but free, in his homeland, peacefully, like everyone should die. The man who was the chief of all the Chokonens since about ten years, died. All the Chokonens were much devoted to him because, even he was autocrat and did not admit to be challenged of his orders, his successes in raids, his planner’s skills, the facts he provided enough supplies to his band, he was fair, he always spoke straight and he did all he could to protect from an enemy’s attack his camps. The Chihennes and the Nednhis respected him and never offended him in his territory. The Bedonkohes were grateful to him because, after Kan-da-zis-tlishishen’s death they were lost, under Goci’s leadership they found again their compass.
When the death of Goci was announced, from every ranchéria, cries and screams were heard. Dos-teh-seh or his sister washed his body, dressed him with skin clothes, painted his face and finally covered him in a Navajo’s blanket with his name on it. His body was put on his favorite’s horse, his Springfield rifle in front of him and his colt on a holster. Goyakla, behind his body in rump, seemed to have held him on the horse. His family, surviving him, were his brother Juan and his sister; his three wives, Dos-teh-seh, Nahlizay’s sister, Yones; at least his six children Taza, Naiche, Naithlo-tonz and Das-den-zhoos from Dos-teh-seh, Ee-lodl-lahm and another daughter from Nahilzay’s sister; his three stepchildren Chie and his sister from Yones, who were certainly authorized to be there, and the fierce Atelnietze from his sister. The next generation appeared since the last three had children too. Then Goci’s final journey began. Preceded by his four principal chiefs, possibly Eskinye, Nahilzay, Kla-esch and Cathla, he was followed by his family and, in exceptional way of Chiricahua’s tradition, by everyone who were present. Goci’s body travelled to his last location, twelve miles west of his camp. Two of his horses were shot down along the way to give to Goci mounts in the Other World. Finally, his favorites horse and dog were killed and put down the pit near his grave. Soon after his body was carefully gone down. Mesquite and other bushes were launched over the pit to recover and hide his body. Everybody who was present burnt at least one of their belongings, in mourning tradition, and kept secret the place of his grave. The location of Goci’s grave is still unknown.
NEXT : 2.3. Supported the Brother, Taza, at any price.
Last Edit: Nov 7, 2019 8:53:50 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
Post by coeurrouge on Nov 17, 2019 16:07:05 GMT -5
2.3. Supported the Brother, Taza, at any price.
It is easy to judge of acts that people have done or not a century and half ago, but I think Jeffords, Goci and Taza made faults, misjudgments and mistakes. These acts involved the quick closure of the Chiricahua’s Reservation. This precipitated closure would impact Chiricahuas’s life and Naiche’s life forever. Jeffords was a good agent. Based on his disgust about most of the agents who were thieves, inefficients or both, he had not much interest on the manual of the Indian Administration which explained the manner to adapt the nomadic natives on a reservation life. He knew each people, how to deal with the Chiricahuas and most of their habits. If he understood some of their traditions, he did not know well their kinship relationship, their economic system and their way of social ascent. Jeffords made some understandable faults. When Goci forbade to raid in Mexico, Jeffords did not try to substitute things, provided by raids, and useful to sell for the families. He could promote gardening for the women and begin stock raising for the men. These two things would occupy people and gave some economic and social progress. After the agent of San Carlos, during the summer of 1874, was the primary to create his Indian Police which allowed the men to still have weapons and recognition as warriors, the superiors of Jeffords encouraged to create his own Indian Police. Jeffords could put Taza as his head policeman and gave him more power in the reservation, but Jeffords refused. His argument, which was a good one, was he feared to divide the band in two factions who would did not like each other. But this and the fact, after the death of Goci, he had not done much to stop the raids in Mexico, was one of the reasons, raids could not be stopped in Mexico. I think Jeffords made these faults because he was tired to battle to have annuities and he guessed the fate of the reservation whatever he would do.
On his wish to guarantee the Peace and the following of the new Chief Taza, Goci made misjudgments. He underestimated the impact of reservation life on the traditional kinship relations. To each Native Nation, by times, the reservation life separated, at last, each family on two groups, the progressive and the traditionalist. In dramatic events man or woman did not follow his family, even family ties stayed strong, but the group the person thought it was the better with which he could live. The loyalty from the other chiefs to Taza, that Goci hoped to obtained by the marriages he planned, would not resist when times of crisis would erupt. Goci underestimated an old politic tradition. He believed the leadership system he built for the Chokonens would be permanent. Since 1865 he was the head chief of the Chokonens and had a total control on all the gotas. After his death, he thought it would be the same for his successor, Taza. But he forgot that when Pisago Cabezòn was killed, it was Miguel Narbona and Yrogillen who were the principal’s chiefs of the band, not him, the son of Pisago Cabezòn. The old politic tradition, it was that each family chose the Chief’s gota they followed. Even most of the chiefs were chief’s sons, a man became a chief because he had followers and he was not designated. The fact that all the chiefs obeyed to Goci was exceptional. After Goci’s death, each gota’s chief became again independent.
Goci overestimated the power or loyalty of his Chiefs. At Goci’s death, Chiva was not anymore, the chief of his gota, Benito was. Eskinye did not control as well as it seemed, his psychotic brother, Pionsonnay. Goyakla was devoted to Goci not to Taza. He promised to live peacefully on this reservation not another. He promised too, to not make war against Americans, not Mexicans. Tandinbilnojui respected Goci, not yet Taza. Also, Goci overestimated the capacity of his son to be a great, at least, a good chief. Taza, although one of the strongest men of his band, respected or feared too much the elder’s chiefs. If he was liked, a good warrior and could lead with efficiency men on warpath, he seemed to not be good to conduct life’s camp and to satisfy everyone. He did not anticipate events like his father did. Taza, at the beginning, was unfortunately and certainly compared to his father much of the time.
Taza, when he succeeded to his father, made mistakes. Firstable just after the burial of his father while all the chiefs were in the camp, he did not sum a council to renew the same order and threat his father did in November 1873, of not raiding in Mexico or leave the reservation. The second was that he did not try to involve Kla-esch’s gota in the peace way built by Goci. The third mistake was made a month later. When raiders came back from Mexico, he did not act to punish them. He could oblige some of the raiders to leave the reservation without divided his band by expulsing all the Chihennes living on the reservation only because it allowed them to go on expedition in Mexico easily. It would show to the Chokonen’s raiders he was ready to act and fight the warriors who did not obey him. But he did not act against the raiders or too late, after he lost most of the leadership his father gave him. It seemed obvious that after the death of Naiche’s father, Dos-teh-seh took the lead of the family and helped Taza on his chief responsibility of the gota. Naiche was certainly in charge to provide supplies and food to the family with Shui-eet while his older brother and Jeffords did their best to take care of the people in the reservation. And Naiche was ready to do whatever his brother would order or his mother.
But just after Goci’s burial, the summer brought the foundations of the reservation’s closure two years later. Nay-zar-zee, maybe foreseeing troubles in the reservation or wanting to join Tandinbilnojui, left the reservation with his gota and camped north of Janos near the Nednhis and Esquine’s Bedonkohes living south of New Mexico. The Nednhis had opened negotiations with Chihuahua and Sonora’s authorities. There was a possible optimistic ending from a long time between Chiricahuas and Mexico. Also, the Chihennes had just learnt that, finally, the Indian Administration would create their reservation at Ojo Caliente. Weather was clear for all the Chiricahuas at this time, but it was just a rift before dark clouds.
Chie and his sister had certainly obtained permission from their agent to visit Goci before he died. With them, went Ponce’s gota. After Goci’s burial they camped near the other Chihennes living in San Simon on the reservation and led by Nayila(Miguel Tuerto?) and Nonithian. Surely before returning at Tularosa, Ponce and his warriors thought to launch a foray into Sonora. Nayila was ready to accompany Ponce. I think, hearing of the foray planned by the Chihennes and to confront Taza, Eskinye instigated a bigger raid and certainly took the lead of this expedition. With him was his warriors, maybe some of Kla-esch, Bénito’s warriors and the Chihennes. I think Goyakla and Nolgee were not part on this expedition to not disturb the truce that Tandinbilnojui attempt to build with the Mexicans. The foray took place in the district of Moctezuma, between June and July 1874 and was very successful. This particular raid was The dramatic one for multiple reasons. Jeffords despised the Mexicans as the Chiricahuas and he did not react when the raiders came back, showing he would not do much against future raids. The foray weakened Taza’s position because he did not react too and all the chiefs knew he would not contest other forays in Mexico. This fact and maybe mistakes by Taza of leading his gota, convinced Nahilzay to separate from Taza and to live in his own camp. The most tragic result was that Sonorans thought the Nednhis were responsible. Tandinbilnojui’s standing and the Sonora’s authority waiting an excuse to break the truce, convinced Sonorans to attack. They captured Tandinbilnojui’ s peace emissaries in Janos. They were Natiza and four women; The Sonorans threatened them and the prisoners guided them to the Nednhis’ ranchéria. But one of the women escaped to alert the camp and was shut down. The people could scatter before the soldiers arrived. In the village Natiza and the other women were executed and scalped. The Chihuahans’ soldiers, wanting certainly their reward too, attacked Nay-zar-zee’s camp. Soon after, altogether Tandinbilnojui, Nay-zar-zee and Esquine arrived in the Chiricahua Reservation on the idea of retaliate the treacheries. They would find reinforcement and supplies there, but they would accentuate the difficulties of Jeffords and Taza.
Tandinbilnojui launched his revenge in mid-September 1874. Between one hundred and fifty to two hundred warriors followed him. Only Taza’s warriors were not involved in the retaliation. The districts of Moctezuma and Sahuaripa were ravaged and it enraged the Mexicans against the Chiricahua Reservation. News from officers’ observations began to interest Arizona’s citizens. The news explained how the San Simon and Suphur Springs valleys were good to herd cattle and that the Chiricahuas and Dragoons Mountains had certainly mineral’s fields. Of this news, Naiche was unaware. Married, even he lived in his birth’s gota, he had traditional duties to his family-in-law. But his father-in-law contested the authority of his beloved brother. Eskinye surely asked Naiche to join him, like most of the young warriors, on raids in Mexico. Naiche did not go with his father-in-law, knowing he would destroy the influence his brother still had. Naiche certainly hoped relations between Taza and Eskinye would appease.
The Chirichuas did not know much what happen outside their reservation. Two men put bases that would impact deeply Apaches. Lieutenant-Colonel Crook changed the fighting strategy against apaches. He used not only as scouts the Apaches but also as soldiers, with success, against other Apache’s tribes. After defeated the Pinals, the Yavapais and the Tontos, Crook was promoted General and sent in 1875 in the Platte’s country, but the use of his strategy stood. In August 1874, a new agent in San Carlos was named. He was a young, brilliant agent. Honest, fair, innovative, very active but also ambitious, arrogant and acquainted with local’s politicians, John P. Clum owned the confidence of the Pinals and Arivaipas living in San Carlos. He was the first to create Indian Police, to pay Apaches to build the constructions of the reservation and he developed farming with success in San Carlos.
The raids below the southern border of the reservation began to be out of control to Taza and Jeffords, during the year 1875. Moreover, some warriors were killed by Mexicans. These dead had to be revenged. The blood spilled between Mexico and the Chiricahuas increased in either side. During this year, Kla-esch seemed to emerge as the war chief of the band. He led several bloody expeditions in Sonora with Chokonen’s followers and some Chihennes. While the Nednhis and the Bedonkohes concentrated their principal forays in Chihuahua. In the same time, the Indian Administration, on the goal to save money, worked on a concentration policy of the reservations. At each closure, Clum was a zealous employee doing more than what expected his superiors. The plan of the Administration was to concentrate all the Arizona Apaches in San Carlos except the Chiricahuas who all would live in Ojo Caliente. In march 1875, the Tontos and the Yavapais were removed from their Camp Verde Reservation to San Carlos. In late July, Clum ordered the White Mountains to come in San Carlos. To calm down the annoyance of these Apaches, he let the families of the scouts to live near Fort Apache. At the end of the summer, Pinals and Tontos leaved near the White Mountains who were much responsible for their defeat by helping the blue soldiers. The situation was explosive. The discontent of these removals would be one of the reasons of the 1881’s revolt among the Cibecue and White Mountain Apaches.
In April 1875, the special commissioner Dudley met the chiefs at the Chiricahua Reservation. He explained the plan to close this reservation and to reunite all the Chiricahuas at Ojo Caliente. As the year before, Taza and the other chiefs there expressed their refusal to move. They knew that the Chihennes had a new agent who was a thief and starved their kinfolk. The chiefs said clearly, they preferred to die in their country than living elsewhere. They convinced Dudley that a removal of the Apaches living in the Chiricahua Reservation would induce war again. In late August 1875, two hundred Eastern White Mountain Apaches under the great but aging Esh-kel-dah-silah, maybe a brother-in-law of Dos-teh-seh, preferred to come at the Chiricahua Reservation than settled in San Carlos. Jeffords to avoid depredations, welcome and fed them. But Taza was not agreed because he thought they took a part of their rations. Also, the Chokonens and the new comers did not like each other as before. The White Mountains finally returned home, fearing reprisal, after some of them killed a Bedonkohe man.
Last Edit: Nov 22, 2019 14:47:51 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
Some good news happened in 1875. Naithlo-tonz gave birth during the year to a boy. Taza seemed to begin to act against the troublemakers. In late 1875, Nayila, Ratòn and their Chihennes’ group left the reservation and returned in their home in the Florida Mountains, southwest of New Mexico. Maybe with Jeffords, Taza ordered them to stop the raids in Mexico or to leave the reservation what they did. But in the same time, a smallpox outbreak arrived in New Mexico and feared the Chiricahuas. While Tandinbilnojui and Goyakla raided in Chihuahua and Eskinye in Sonora, in January 1876, Taza and Cathla moved their camp from Apache Pass to the Dragoon Mountains to avoid smallpox. They installed their ranchéria near the one of Eskinye. In the same time, Jeffords struggled to have enough beef issue. Eskinye and his raiders returned 9th or 10th of February 1876 among their families. They were surprised to see Taza and his gota living near them.
Exited and confident by their recent success, Eskinye and his warriors tried to convince Taza and Cathla’s warriors to follow them on the next forays. Eskinye always on the idea to break Taza’s leadership, certainly pressed Naiche. The old chief explained the White Eyes did not keep their promises by feeding the Chiricahuas because they did not furnace enough beef. Educated to be loyal, Naiche was torned between his brother and his father-in-law. Eskinye reminded, surely, that when a man asked a request to his son-in-law, the latter had to respond. And Eskinye remembered Goci always responded to Kan-da-zis-tlishishen when asked. Eskinye thought it was time to Naiche to follow him in forays into Mexico. But the loyalty of Naiche over his brother was much stronger than his duties over Eskinye. So, Eskinye failing to convince Naiche, did not break Taza’s chieftain. During a tiswin party, the bitterness between the two groups exploded. A fight occurred and a warrior from each side was killed as, unfortunately, the son of Naithlo-tonz and Shui-eet. Immediately after, Taza and Cathla’s gota came back near Fort Bowie. While, maybe disappointed by Eskinye’s failure, Pionsonnay and some followers went again on a raid in Sonora.
Time was hard for Naiche. He saw his brother having trouble to endorse his role and their friend Jeffords seeming disheartened and helpless. More than that, Eskinye’s warriors were responsible of the death of his sister’s young son. In the Chiricahua’s tradition, Naiche certainly considered this boy as his son too. Naiche and his sisters, as children, escaped death during war time and they saw their son killed in peace time, it was very painful for them. In their tradition, this death required retaliation. But for Naiche it would mean another fight against the father of his wife. Jeffords was under great pressures. The raiders were out of control, the Indian Administration was unable to furnace, at time, enough food. Arizona’s citizens, mining companies and press requested with more insistence, to close this reservation and open the land to settlement. Governor of Arizona Safford, in a political interest, used his influence in the Southwest and in Washington to obtain this. He found a precious ally in agent Clum. In favor of the concentration policy of his Administration, Clum shouted he could welcome in San Carlos all the Apaches living in the Chiricahua Reservation. Every American waited an excuse made by the Chokonens. But since Howard and Goci’s treaty no body was killed by an Apache in USA. There were few whites on the reservation at this time. Apart Jeffords, Hughes, soldiers at Fort Bowie, they were Delong, his employee working at Delong’ store just near Fort Bowie and Rogers and Spence owners of a ranch in Sulphur Springs. Delong and Rogers certainly bought plunder from Mexico to the Chiricahuas. Others ambulant traders from the famous “Tucson Ring” came surely time to time to deal with the raiders. Delong seemed to deal with Taza, Kla-esch and Cathla‘s gota. To close from Fort Bowie, Delong did not sell alcohol to not lose his rights. While Rogers, living fifty miles west of Fort Bowie, seemed to sell whiskey to the Chiricahuas and the soldiers. His main Chiricahua’s customers were apparently Eskinye’s gota. I think the Nednhis and the Bedonkohes dealed with different traders like Delong, from the “Tucson Ring” or with old knowledges near Janos.
Maybe disappointed and angry with his brother of his failure to take control of the band, Pionsonnay led another raid with six men in Mexico, just after the fight with Taza’s warriors. In march 1876, Jeffords knowing Rogers brought a keg of whiskey, warmed him that this whiskey would make troubles. It was known Rogers mixed the whiskey with tobacco and chili pepper. These ingredients made the whiskey strong and exiting the brain of the drinkers. After a month of looting, Pionsonnay and his men came back in early April. They visited Rogers 6th of April and bought some whiskey. The psychotic Pionsonnay, always looking for violence, did not need Rogers’ whiskey. The drinking exalted his anger against his brother. The next day he bought again whiskey to Rogers and completely drunk he was ready to fight Eskinye, his older brother. Their two sisters tried to interfere but Pionsonnay, intoxicated by the mixture of Rogers, killed the two. One of them was certainly the woman known as Hair Almost On The Ground and mother of two young children named Tsalth-zay-nah-zizzy and Biete. Finally realizing what he had done, Pionsonnay enraged and seeked for revenge. He did not return to Rogers’s ranch to buy whiskey again but to killed the seller. 7th of April at the evening, with a companion he killed Rogers and Spence.
Immediately after, Eskinye’s gota fled to Sonora by the San Pedro’s valley. There they attacked two ranches and killed two others Americans. Taza, the night before, was informed of the Rogers’ killing and alerted Jeffords. Jeffords accompanied forty soldiers and guided by Taza and three of his men, they tried to intercept the renegades. In the Mule Mounts Eskinye’s warriors ambushed the soldiers and a two hours fight took place without casualties. Finally, Eskinye and his followers succeed to slip in Sonora, 10th of April 1876. To avoid bloody mistakes, Jeffords asked the other gotas to camp at the eastern side of the reservation. The killing of Americans in and mostly outside the reservation was the waited plea. Pionsonnay’s bloody acts triggered the closure process of the Chiricahua Reservation. Governor Safford and agent Clum, the two having complementary ambition, coordinated their efforts. Safford sent news in Washington of the Chiricahua uprising and overstated it. By his political links, he obtained the official order of the closure, only one month after Pionsonnay’s killings.
Agent Clum enrolled a special Indian Police force, acquainted with Safford and suggested by the Governor the Indian administration wired Clum, on 3rd of May, to take charge of the Chiricahua Reservation and to make a transfer if possible. Clum asked for US troops to help him. Military Commander of Arizona, General Kautz informed his forces would be ready on 2nd of June. By the experience of the removals of the Tonto, Pinals, Arivapais and White Mountains which took place at last without revolts, every US official were confident. But they forgot that the White Mountains were old allies; that the Tontos and the Pinals had been defeated by Crook and had lost many of their people; the Arivapais after suffered of the Camp Grant’s massacre, felt secured in San Carlos. The Chiricahuas suffered hard of war but they were not defeated and they were better armed than before. And the first removal of a Chiricahua’s band, the Chihennes, was a complete failure in 1873. Most of the people scattered before the removal.
The scattering in the Chiricahua Reservation began when the other gotas heard about the killing of Eskinye’s men. Fearing troubles, Nonithian and Esquine led their gota at Ojo Caliente. they were badly welcome by the Chihennes and Jlin-tay-i-tith. Soon after, 20th and 21st of April, brawls broke out and some men died. Unfortunately, Chie, the close “brother” of Naiche, was among the men killed. Esquine and his Bedonkohes preferred leaving Ojo Caliente and joined Nayila in the Animas or Florida Mountains. Whatever Jeffords, Goci and Taza had made as faults, misjudgments or mistakes, the fate of the Chiricahua Reservation was decided at its creation. Safford and his citizens saw the reservation as a potential wealth location which needed the removal of Native inhabitants. The Indian Administration had never wanted this reservation desired by Goci and created by Howard. The militaries were upset that one of them, who never lived here, accepted Goci’s choice. Goci dead and Howard a long way from Arizona, every White Eyes thought, except Jeffords, time had come to close the Chiricahua Reservation.
In the beginning of May 1876, rumors announcing the closure were heard by the Chiricahuas living in the reservation, making them nervous. Jeffords tried to calm them saying he had no official news about the closure. In the same time Eskinye returned from Sonora after a loot. The old chief said he was ready to put him under Taza’s leadership and to obey him. Naiche served as a middleman to calm tensions down. But what was the goal of Eskinye returning just when everybody guessed that the end of the reservation would be soon. I think he came back, the US government breaking his promises, to convince Taza to participate with him of an outbreak and to escape in Mexico. General Kautz decided to show forces to avoid resistance of the removal. He used all his cavalry, five hundred and fifty cavaliers and one hundred Apaches scouts. He put some of them on the eastern and western border. Sending messages to Sonora to put soldiers below the border to stop flights by Mexico, Kautz thinking it was enough and that it was unecessary to put blue soldiers to guard the southern border of the reservation. Clum enrolled fifty Indian policemen and arrived in Tucson with them 23rd of May. He would be in charge to supervise the transfer. From now on guard after hearing the rumors, the Chiricahuas saw the troops’ movements and began to prepare themselves. Nay-zar-zee and Bénito moved their camp near Dzisl-lnoi-bi-yi-tu ready to go at Ojo Caliente before it would be too late. Eskinye prepared an uprising with the support of Nolgee. Goyakla and Tandinbilnojui considered their options of escape, Ojo Caliente or the Sierra Madre. Taza and Naiche disappointed by the dishonest conducts of the US government summed Jeffords 26th of May. Taza said to his friend to leave the reservation because he did not want Jeffords would see his death and Naiche’s death. Taza announced they decided to fight to death for their homeland rather than to go to San Carlos. Jeffords reminded them their promises to their father, “be at peace as long as they could with the White Eyes and always listen the advises of Jeffords”.
Then the agent advised them to accept the relocation in San Carlos. Taza finally bitterly consented to go but asked to not camp near the disliked Apaches to avoid brawls. Hughes, acting as Safford and Clum’s emissary, transmitted the wish of Taza. Clum said he would assign the Chokonens at the former location of Fort Goodwin. Taza, even knowing it was an unhealthy place, accepted surely because it was the only place available in the San Carlos Reservation to avoid contacts with others tribes. Since 31st of May, US troops were in approach and disturbed the Chiricahuas. The chiefs acted. Nay-zar-zee, Bénito and Zele escaped, reaching in several groups, Ojo Caliente. Eskinye thought it was time to act and to convince Taza through Naiche. He tried to induce all the Chokonens in a revolt. But he failed again and old foes emerged. Kla-esch, Nahilzay and Cathla staying neutrals, Taza acted mainly to revenge and to end this quarrel. It seemed hard to know who attack who. But in the Bonita Canyon the fight happened, in late evening 4th of June 1876. At this time, E-clah-eh and Naithlo-tonz seemed pregnant. Taza, Naiche, Shui-eet, Atelnietze and followers fought in close range Eskinye, Pionsonnay and their warriors. During this fight Naiche would do an exceptional act for a Chiricahua man and never known before in Chiricahua’s History. The fight was bloody. Seven warriors were killed and six others wounded. Taza lost two men among them Shui-eet. Pionsonnay was badly wounded and half of the warriors of Eskinye’s gota were killed. Naiche loyal to Chiricahua’s traditions broke one of the most important. Living in a maternal society, he killed with a riffle’s bullet right in the forehead his father-in-law Eskinye. This act needed a strong determination in the living society of Naiche. It showed Naiche had a stronger mental strength than described in historical records. By killing Eskinye, Naiche also showed how strong was his loyalty to his brother and certainly gained much respect from the other chiefs. The most surprising thing, it was that Nah-de-yole stayed with her husband, the killer of her father, still 1892. Naiche’s determination and Nah-de-yole’s faithfulness meant, perhaps, that the Goci’s grandson killed in February was their son not Naithlo-tonz’s one.
After the fight, Taza and his followers put them under the soldiers’ security fearing retaliation from Eskinye’s friends like Nolgee. Clum arrived the same day and dismissed Jeffords, respecting the order of the Indian Administration. 6th of June 1876, Taza and Naiche accepted to follow Clum and his Indian Policemen to San Carlos. Pionsonnay surrendered the same day, thinking he would die. Treated by the surgeon of Fort bowie, he recovered and 13th of June escaped to Mexico with some followers. With Taza, were Chiva and his family, Nahilzay and his followers, Kla-esch and Cathla went too to San Carlos but I think, half of their warriors and their families hided in the Mountains and fled in Mexico too. Fooling Clum with an old stratagem, The Nednhis and Goyakla’s Bedonkohes went directly to Sonora, 8th of June. It seemed Goyakla sent Zele at Ojo Caliente as a spy. For all the Chiricahuas, they kept the words they gave to General Howard but the US officials did not. For men like Goyakla, without compromise, they used the removal as a war decision of the White Eyes against the Chiricahuas. This removal opened a long period of thirty-eight years, for all the Chiricahuas, of disasters and sufferings. During this most tragic period of the Chiricahuas’ life, Naiche was put on responsibility.
NEXT : TOO YOUNG TO BE CHIEF, BUT...
Last Edit: Nov 27, 2019 6:26:48 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
Post by coeurrouge on Dec 10, 2019 15:48:13 GMT -5
TOO YOUNG TO BE CHIEF, BUT...
Historical context during those times.
In Mexico, Porfirio Diaz became President in 1876. He would stay President still 1910. During his chiefship, the economy of Mexico increased and the political situation was steady. But the wealth created was not shared. 97% of the farming and herding lands were owned by 1% of the population in large haciendas like the ones of Joaquin Terrazas and Juan Mata Ortiz. They employed péones and payed them very low. To stay in place, Diaz used cheating during elections, numerous military forces, loyal, well-armed and payed. With the Natives, Mexico did not change his policy from before. For the Apaches only one politic was applied: extermination by any means with more efficiency during this period.
In USA, the economic dynamism was positive. Migration from Eastern Europe supported the needs of workers but also of new lands. The railroad expanses restarted. But much of the politicians were corrupted during this period and the political system was unstable. The Civil Right Act was repealed and the Southern States put Segregation in place. Klu Klux Klan was become powerful in these States. The President James Garfield was assassinated in July of 1881. With the Natives population, the population called for revenge after the battle of Little Big Horn where 279 men were killed by the Sioux and the Cheyennes, in the centennial’s year in 1876. Time was to concentrate Native tribes on reservation reduced by acts to open new lands for white settlers. The revolts of tribes who did not accepted that, like the Nez-Percés, the Cheyennes or the Chiricahuas would be hardly repressed outside the reservations. In the reservation, the Indian Administration applied the assimilation policy. It meant destroying the traditional politic system, the cultural identity by forbidden old sacred ceremonies and by sending (willingly or by kidnapping) children in boarding school like in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The goal of this school was to learn the American way of life to Native’s children. But the main goal was the children should lose their Native identity. Carlisle was copied allover USA and in Canada. Unfortunately, this school’s model for Native was used almost a century. 1. San Carlos.
1.1. A position not wanted and not prepared too.
The travel from Fort Bowie to San Carlos was done with sadness by the Chokonens, especially for Naiche and Taza. They certainly thought they failed to keep what their father gave to them. The Whites Eyes stole their homeland, their dear friend Jeffords was dismissed, the band was divided and scattered and they killed other Chokonens. Their sister became a young pregnant widow and Naiche killed his father-in-law. And they surely heard that the removal induced indirectly the death of Chie. They settled, 18th of June 1876, at San Carlos, near the old place of Fort Goodwin. A land where their father never wanted to camp more than few days. During the summer time, it was very hot, dry, with a lot of scorpions, rattlesnakes and Gila’s monsters. There was no game to hunt and no plant to harvest. They were completely dependents of the White Eyes’ food. The only good news were their women and children were safe, they kept their weapons, they lived away from the others Apaches’ tribes and the new agent Clum was arrogant but seemed active, honest, capable and fair.
Clum visited the Chiricahuas in mid-July 1876. He thought they were contented but they certainly pretended to be. It was surely at this time Clum invited Taza to go East visiting the President of USA. Less worried than his father to go East, Taza agreed. Goci always refused to go fearing death. Cathla, probably a close friend of Taza, would join Naiche’s brother. But before the departure, showing the Chirichuas were more restless than thought Clum, Nahilzay and twenty-five followers escaped of San Carlos. He associated with Pionsonnay in Mexico. Taza and Cathla left the reservation, by wagons, with Clum, in late of July. Taza wanted certainly to advocate his band’s cause by being allowed to come back in their homeland. They would go to New Mexico and after travel by trains. Clum let in charge of San Carlos his seconds, Sweeney and Hoag. With Taza missing, the charge to take care of the band was shared between Chiva, Kla-esch and Naiche. But it was more surely Dos-teh-seh who administrated through his youngest son, the people and consolidated her influence over the women. Sweeney and Hoag managed well the reservation and during the fall to avoid discontent, Sweeney and Hoag who were short of food, allowed the Chiricahuas to go in the nearby mountains to hunt and to gather mescal and acorns.
For the others Chiricahuas, life was different. The Chihennes struggled with a thief’s agent named Shaw at Ojo Caliente. Bi-duye with young warriors had to raid in Mexico to get food. The bellicose Bedonkohes who arrived after the closure of the Chiricahua Reservation were not welcome by the Chihennes especially Jlin-tay-i-tith. The chief killed one of them to avoid troubles. The Chihennes under Nayila and the Bedonkohes led by Esquine had several little fights with Americans south of New Mexico. The Nednhis, the Chokonens of Pionsonnay and Nahilzay had a raiding life in Mexico around the sacred and protecting Sierra Madre. Goyakla used arguments without success to convince Tandinbilnojui that Ojo Caliente’s Reservation would be a good place from where to launch raids while the women and children would be fed in a safety place. He left with his Bedonkohes, the Nednhis and united with Esquine in New Mexico.
When the winter began or just before, two new members of Goci’s extended family were born. They were a girl named Deh-kluh-kizhee from E-clah-eh and a boy Nasdlada from Naithlo-tonz. In early December 1876, The Apaches who visited Washington returned without Taza. Naiche and his family asked what happened to him. Cathla explained the chief died in Washington DC, been sick after a heavy rain storm. They were in Washington from few days. His corpse was buried with a military ceremony in Washington. The death of his brother put in great pain and anger Naiche because the man who convinced Taza to go East was not returned. While Cathla described their journey, Naiche understood Clum used his brother and the other Apaches as entertainment to make money and to pay his marriage. It was never on schedule to meet the President because when the delegation was in the Capital, the President was away from this place. Clum lied to them and his brother did not survive from this liar. And how was it possible to die from a heavy rain storm? In Arizona too, there were such rains and the Apaches did not die from those. Quickly the Chokonens, moreover Naiche, believed Taza was witchcraft or poisoned. At twenty years old, Naiche was the only surviving man of his family. He had to take care of his mother, Yones, the other widow of Goci, at least three sisters, two babies and Nah-de-yole whom he shot his father six months ago. He was educated to be loyal to his family, to his brother, to his gota’s chief and to the peace with the White Eyes. But at this time loyal to who? Taza was dead, Nahilzay was gone and the White Eyes, military or civilian’s men often betrayed them since Goci’s death. The expectation of Clum’s return, to have his explanations, the fate of the free Chiricahuas living outside the reservations and the advices of Dos-teh-seh restrained surely Naiche to look for revenge. Certainly, soon after, if E-clah-eh was Taza’s spouse, Naiche married her in a traditional Chiricahua way and Deh-kluh-kizhee became his daughter. Clum returned at San Carlos, 1st of January 1877, with his bride. It was said that Naiche waited three days near Clum’s office to meet him and to have explanations. True or not, Clum had the meeting with Naiche few days after in presence of Eskiminzin, the Arivaipa’s chief. Clum said he was sorry and explained Taza succumbed of a pneumonia, 26th of September, after being soaked by a cold rain storm. He did not calm Naiche. The young brother accused Clum to have witchcraft or poisoned Taza. Eskiminzin succeeded to calm down Naiche but the latter always thought Taza was maybe poisoned. Naiche blamed Clum, for good reason, about Taza’s death. And to Naiche, going East for a Chokonen’s chief, like his father thought, meant death. Naiche suffered of the mourning but also because he did not what to do. After all, Naiche lost another male model or mentor.
His last mentor, Goyakla, at this time, had raided with followers in Arizona and settled with Esquine in their winter’s camp, north of the Animas Mountains, with some Chokonens. They thought they lured the blue pursers. But they did not know that the blue soldiers were in majority Apaches scouts who did not abandoned the pursuit. The scouts finally found the ranchéria. Under the command of American officers and a white scout’s chief, they attacked, 9th of January of 1877. Around fifty soldiers, seventy percent were Western Apaches, at daybreak, began to shoot. After three hours of a hard battle, the ranchéria was deserted by the Bedonkohes and the Chokonens. They lost everything and were stunned that most of the soldiers were Apaches. Also, sixteen people were killed, men, women and children. A nephew of Goyakla, of five and half years old, was captured and brought with the scouts to San Carlos. He was certainly entrusted to a Chokonen’s relative in San Carlos. This Goyakla’s nephew was possibly Kanseah. Goyakla, Esquine and their followers went to Ojo Caliente to find a refuge, but since then, it seemed Esquine broke relations with Goyakla and bonded his fate with the Chihennes. If Bi-duye welcome them, Jlin-tay-i-tith did not wanted them in the reservation especially Goyakla. The two did not seem to like each other and soon feuds would increase between them.
While Goyakla reached Ojo Caliente, Naiche was put on a heavy responsibility, he did not want it but he would assume as he could. An age when his father and his brother just began to be a warrior, Naiche was named chief of the Chokonen’s band. Clum and the band in the reservation’s system, needed a successor of Taza. Nahilzay, now a renegade, was outside and had lost the credibility to be a good reservation’s chief. Chiva was a Bedonkohe and was now aging. Kla-esch and Ulzanna looked for opportunity, authorized by Americans, to be outside the reservation more than led the Chokonen’s band to live as well as possible in San Carlos. Cathla was no more enough influent to get this responsibility. It stayed Naiche. He was more peaceful than others leaders, he had the bloodline and his principal advisor was his influent’s mother, Dos-teh-seh. Naiche was designated by the women and approved by Clum as the new Chokonen’s chief. But Naiche lacked a lot of thing to be chief, at this time. He had no experience. His father became a warrior’s headman when he was twenty-five years old and a headman of the gota when he was forty years old, Naiche was too young to endorse the responsibility in a time when the Chiricahua’s world disappeared. He was not prepared for this function. His parents taught to Taza all the things to lead a gota, not to him. He was educated to be just loyal. He was respected by the warriors because he was Goci’s son and he showed his determination by killing his father-in-law. But no warrior would go with him on warpath because he never led only one raid. And the men at the reservation were not the most warlike warriors. And for all the people, every chief to be followed, should have a diyin given by the Gan’s. Naiche did not have one and would never have. Naiche seemed to accept this new responsibility by loyalty but was certainly disrupted by that. Clum enlisted him as a policeman to certainly help him by giving some prestige to Naiche in the eyes of the Chokonens. But as chief what kind of life Naiche could propose to his band? One of the conditions accepted by Clum to obtain the removal was the warriors would not work. In the reservation system, herding was not allowed and developed by the agents. Even if Naiche and his band were ready to farm or to do herding, it was impossible near old Fort Goodwin, as hunting and gathering. Naiche could only maintain order and ensure everyone got their rations.
Naiche surely first action, the one he knew the best, was to take care of his family who was in their fourth tremendous mourning in the last eleven months. He would try later to think about the care and the future of his band. The Chokonens and he, surely understood they have definitively lost their homeland. Naiche probably thought to ask a removal to a better location for his band and accepted the ideas told by white commissioners in 1874 and 1875, to join the Chihennes in Ojo Caliente. If he really had some thoughts like that, he quickly gave up because of dramatic events which erupted in the beginning of 1877 and ended the story of the Ojo Caliente’s Reservation. Like one year before for the Chiricahua’s Reservation, the Indian Administration in their concentration policy, waited an excuse to close the reservation of the Chihennes. And again, the ambitious Clum would act with enthusiasm to help to this goal.
Last Edit: Dec 22, 2019 15:11:02 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
Goyakla just after arrived in Ojo Caliente looked for revenge. He could rely on his Bedonkohes’ followers, the Chokonens come with him, his old allies Nay-zar-zee, Bénito and Pedes-kinjle. The inveterate Chihennes’ raiders Ponce Junior and Tah-ho-klisn joined him. They went in Mexico finding reinforcement with Tandinbilnojui, Nolgee, Pionsonnay and Nahilzay. The plan was to launch a foray from Mexico in the Sonoita valley in Arizona. Between 4th and 8th of February 1877, the raiders attacked in one or two parties, it depended the days. They killed around twenty people and stole one hundred head of stock. They returned in Mexico where they split. Goyakla and his followers went north in Ojo Caliente, having their revenge. But they gave to governor Safford of Arizona the reason to ask a firm action against the Ojo Caliente’s Chiricahuas by the Indian Administration.
As for the Chiricahua’s Reservation, the allies Safford and Clum played their role to obtain the closure of the Ojo Caliente’s Reversation learning nothing from the previous closures and removals. Governor Safford made pressure on Washington by creating a militia, criticizing General Kautz to be unable to stop those raids and the agent of Ojo Caliente to not control his Apaches as Clum done at San Carlos. Clum was charged by Safford to enlisted a sixty Apaches militia to chase renegades. The agent asked and obtained to have Clay Beauford to be enlisted as captain of this force. On march 1877, the superior of Clum ordered him to act by arresting and put in jail in San Carlos the renegades involved in the raid of February. He would use his Apache’s Police. Clum agreed with enthusiasm and would try to obtain the removal of all the Chiricahuas living in Ojo Caliente. He wanted to be the lone agent in charge of all the Apaches west of the Rio Grande. He asked and obtained the help of the militaries in New Mexico. Clum prepared his expedition during a month. He enlisted one hundred Apache policemen for this operation. Certainly no one was a Chokonen and Naiche was not part on this expedition. Clum was not confident of the Chokonens in an arrest of some of their kinfolk.
In mid-April, Clum arrived at Fort Bayard, New Mexico, with his police force of one hundred Apaches, twenty-two were mounted. Here he asked the authorization to remove all the Apaches and then to close the Ojo Caliente’s Reservation. 17th of April, the Indian Administration approved the closure. On the evening 20th of April, Clum and his twenty-two mounted policemen arrived at Ojo Caliente. He thought the Chiricahuas would know his arrival. He received also a message from the militaries that reinforcement would only arrive 22nd of April. Clum then made his trap. He sent a message to Beauford to enter in the Reservation only at night and to hide the eighty others policemen in the intendancy building waiting orders to appear. 21st of April, 1877, was apparently a ration’s day. Clum sent a message to Goyakla meaning he wanted to talk with him and his followers. The Bedonkohes came with their arms but also with their women and children showing they did not think of troubles. Just at the beginning of the talks, Clum informed Goyakla that he was under arrest as some others leaders for their committed raids in Arizona on February and on early April. When the Bedonkohes thought to resist, at the signal, the eighty hided policemen came out and surrounded the Chiricahuas. Clum met in the afternoon Jlin-tay-i-tith, Bi-duye and Kas-tziden and counted their people. The next day cavalry shew up and Clum could finish his plan. 24th of April he informed the Chihennes’ chiefs that they had to remove their people to San Carlos. Their women and children surrounded by superiors armed forces, the three chiefs agreed with bad-hearted. Chiefs or headmen arrested were Nay-zar-zee, Pedes-kinjle, Francisco, Cassori, Jatu, Ponce Junior and Goyakla. The last three would do the travel with shackles on their ankles. 1st of May, under supervision of the Apache policemen and the cavalry, four hundred and fifty-three Chiricahuas moved to San Carlos. It was the end of the Ojo Caliente Reservation. One hundred and fifty Chiricahuas escaped, some ninety Bedonkohes under Ischi joined the Nednhis, apparently, in Mexico. Around sixty Chihennes hided in the mountains or went to the Mescaleros Reservation maybe under Horache.
Naiche and his Chokonens saw, 20th of May, the Ojo Caliente’s Chiricahuas arrived in San Carlos and camped near them. This was not a happy reunion with his Chihennes’ family for Naiche. There were his uncles Thastine and Mangus, his aunt Nahke-desah. Ilthooda was there too with his son, Chee, as Chie’s sister and her children if she had some yet. But Cassori and Ponce Junior were put in the guardhouse. The Chihennes were very sad and blamed more or less Goyakla and the Bedonkohes for their removal. An animosity erupted with this removal between Jlin-tay-i-tith’s Chihennes, Goyakla and Nay-zar-zee’s followers. Jlin-tay-i-tith reproached them, with some credits, to be responsible of the closure of his reservation while Goyakla and men like Pedes-kinjle seemed to have thought Jlin-tay-i-tith helped Clum to make his trap. Naiche was in the middle of the two group. His Chihenne’s family was bitter against Goyakla, even one of them was related to him, Goonah-leenah (Vicente?). But Naiche was certainly trouble watching his last mentor and one of his close friends in shackles. Naiche surely questioned himself if his chieftain would stay. But the Chokonens brought from Ojo Caliente joined his gota or the one of Kla-esch and put them under his leadership. Soon after, 1st of July, feeling he was not anymore supported by his superiors, Clum resigned from his post. In fact, Clum during the last twelve months, was in San Carlos only five months, so Naiche was not much in contact with him but more often with his adjoint Sweeney.
All the Chiricahuas hoped the following agent would be Jeffords whom they all were confident. But they were disappointed. An interim was decided, the time to name a new agent. The new comings were very dissatisfied especially the Chihennes and Jlin-tay-i-tith lost some of his influence among the Chihennes because they followed his way since 1873 and it brought tiswin deaths, a stealer agent, finally the loss of their sacred land and they lived in San Carlos, a place they hated. The Bedonkohes were unhappy too mostly because lot of their leaders were in jail, for no reason to them.
To calm down the Chiricahuas living in San Carlos, the Indian Administration decided to release the prisoners. In mid-July they were free and their freedom calmed down the Bedonkohes but not the Chihennes. If Naiche appreciated the release of Goyakla and Pedes-kinjle, he was maybe anxious to know how those leaders would behave with him. He was quickly reassured. Goyakla and the others leaders accepted and respected him as the Chokonen’s Chief. He was recognized as Chief not only because of his bloodline but also his followers, during the past year, were the only to have not suffer by the killing of kinfolks. Since June 1876, he was the only chief to have lived permanently in San Carlos and he was the one who knew the best how to live here. From all the Chokonens and the Bedonkohes who lived at the Chiricahua’s Reservation in 1876, in late July 1877, they were all in San Carlos except Pionsonnay, Nahilzay and some Bedonkohes. Goyakla and Nay-zar-zee having been in jail seemed to have lost influence on the new generation while the one of Pedes-kinjle and Naiche increased, mainly among the women for the last.
In late August, Pionsonnay, Nahilzay and Nolgee came near the reservation. The last two wanted to surrender. The new agent, Hart, just arrived in post accepted and promised no retaliation. Nahilzay surrendered, 31st of August 1877, and put him under the leadership of Naiche and doing that, reinforced the position of the young Chief. But surrender was not an option for Pionsonnay, he only wanted to convince some of his extended family to follow him in Mexico.
NEXT : 1.2 Disease.
Last Edit: Jan 8, 2020 11:38:43 GMT -5 by coeurrouge
Post by coeurrouge on Jan 13, 2020 15:38:16 GMT -5
1st of September was the ration’s day. Since a long time, the new agent gave full rations to all the Chiricahuas. At night, Pionsonnay convinced his old companions and Nolgee to escape San Carlos and went to Mexico. They were quickly followed by US Army scouts. With full rations and using the involuntary decoy made by the group of Pionsonnay, the Chihennes under the command of Bi-duye escaped too the next evening with the Bedonkohes of Esquine. They executed a long-prepared plan to flee to their homeland by the Northeast. None of Naiche’s gota joined Pionsonnay but all of the members of his Chihenne’s family quitted San Carlos. The two escaping adventures seemed to not disturb much Naiche. The young chief was much concern by the last three months of scarce rations and by the thought of the new agent asking them to move closer to the agency. The Chokonens did not want to move. Naiche was maybe surprise that Goyakla and the Bedonkohes did not follow Nolgee to join Tandinbilnojui. The shaman was certainly resting after his time in the jailhouse and stunned a little as Pedes-kinjle by what has done Clum to them.
But very soon Hart, the new agent had second thoughts and let the Chiricahuas to live where they camped. He restored order in the reservation and had in mid-September full rations to give. These two factors seemed to satisfied Naiche and the others. 23rd of September, Hart met the leaders among them Naiche. The chief expressed again his promise he had done to his father, live in peace with the White Eyes. He said to Hart that he and his band would remain in San Carlos and had no wish to leave. The Bedonkohes said the same words. From Goyakla and the Bedonkohes it was certainly courtesy words or were just promises until they changed their mind. But for Naiche and the Chokonens it was sincere not because they love their new life but it was the more pragmatic choice. Since June 1876, they were the only Chiricahuas who had not much suffered. Some thirteen women and children who had fled on 1st of September were caught back by scouts three days after, as thirty Chihennes. Among the Chihennes who quitted the Reservation, eleven had been killed mainly women and children. Only Tandibilnojui seemed to live freely, as he wanted, a life of raids in Mexico and sometimes in USA. Also, the agents let the Chokonens quiet to live as they pleased.
The choice to live in peace in San Carlos rather than escape and fight, was the one of Taza with his young brother, Naiche. Even it was not by his influence that rations were again full, the Chokonens maybe thought their young chief had some power to take care of them. The news, during the end of 1877, about the fate of the outside Chiricahuas comforted this idea. The Chihennes had to surrender in Fort Wingate near the Navajo’s Reservation. In December 1877, The Nednhis were hit as hard as the Bedonkohes were in January by US Army’s scouts south of the border. Pionsonnay, the psychotic, was killed during a fight with Mexican soldiers.
During this time Naiche, Pedes-kinjle and Goyakla built strong bounds not only as friends but also as leaders. The young chief was certainly influenced by these two experienced men but Naiche also surely taught them how to manage life in this reservation. After one year of Chieftain, Naiche had gained the respect of the members of his band and of the other leaders. During the Fall of 1877 or in the Winter after, Nah-de-yole and him had a son, whose Nde’s name is still unknown, who would be nicknamed Paul.
One reason why the band was so peaceful was maybe because superstition. They knew when they were removed from the Chiricahua’s Reservation, they would live in an unhealthy place. They certainly considered this location haunted by evil spirits. But since they arrived, nobody died from disease, the Chokonens read that as a sign from Usen that living there was the better choice. Their ranchérias were camped near the old Fort Goodwin, in the lowlands of the Gila River, in southeastern of the reservation. There was some swamps and water holes mainly during the Spring. In Spring with the rains and the melting snow from the Mogollons Mountains, grew the Gila River and it flood on the major river bed. When the river decreased lots of place of stagnant water existed. These water holes were heavens for the mosquitoes. But inexplicably evils did not strike in 1877.
The Indian Administration during this period was highly corrupt and plenty of stealers wanted their own part of gain. The agent of San Carlos had no permission to purchase farming tools even when the Apaches asked for it. The contractors of the reservation brought bad qualities but costly supplies. Some rations were inadequate. The agents struggled the same problem as Jeffords with the Indian Administration, having money at time to pay the contractors. If Hart seemed to be a better agent than the previous at the beginning, it was certainly on his schedule to lure everybody. He satisfied the Apaches with full rations at his arrival to avoid revolts which would request militaries attention on the reservation. His superiors, watching his beginnings, were glad to have found apparently another efficient agent like Clum. But Hart was another Shaw. Before becoming agent, he was acquainted with a partner in mining operations in New Mexico. Some months after getting his job, Hart hired his brother and his former partner as employees of the agency. Then Hart, fooling his superiors and the Apaches quiet, concentrated to acquire mines inside and outside the Reservation. He seemed to have play a role letting the selling of a band of lands East of the reservation, upsetting the White Mountain Apaches. Hart used his former partner and his brother to develop his mines, with payroll of the Indian administration. The workers were fed with half of the rations that Hart turned away from the Apaches. Then Hart did not much as agent of the reservation and the militaries of Fort Thomas, when urgency occurred, always offsetted by furnacing the lacked rations or tools.
When they arrived in San Carlos, discontented, Naiche and the Chokonens refused to work as the white men. After a year, seeing they were safe and not much mistreated by the White Eyes, Naiche seemed to have convince his gota to try farming. Certainly, advised by some employees like Sweeney or Grijalva, hired as interpreter when the Chihennes arrived, Naiche and his Chokonens and some Bedonkohes more surely led by Pede-kinjle than Goyakla, dug an irrigation ditch to use Gila River water to farm. They seemed to have decided to try a new way of life. The hope of a new life evaporated quickly. Naiche and his band understood shortly even experienced farmers with adequate tools and enough seed would not succeed to feed their family there. Naiche certainly thought why trying to farm while they were not farmer, they did not want much to be, they did not have tools and this land did not allow plants to grow except desert plants. Worse, a terrible disease stroke during the Spring which was called the shacking illness.
The Chokonen medicine men and the white doctors could not do anything to heal the infected people. It would be ten years later that medical researches would find an efficient treatment with the quinine. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century, doctors found mosquitoes carried this terrible disease. It was the malaria. Its provoked fever time to time, shakings and the sick people felt cold or warm when the weather was conversely. This illness attacked and destroyed the blood of the infected people. The malaria stroke mostly pregnant women and children under five years old. These people representing the future of a nation or a tribe, when they died or could not have babies, it was their nation or tribe who also died. Naiche saw his medicine men helpless to fight the malaria and when he asked the agent for white medicine, there was no better success. In few months, fifty to sixty Chokonens succumbed because of the shaking illness and certainly with the same ratio, peoples from Nay-zar-zee’s and Goyakla’s gotas. Bénito’s gota seemed less hit because they lived near a White Mountain Apache’s camp led by a Chiricahua, whose nickname was George, married in this group. Without explanation of the disease, the Chiricahuas thought it was bad spirits who attacked them and some, the more superstitious, believed surely that it was because they tried to live like the White Eyes. The people felt in a deep discouragement and a mourning sadness.
To accentuate this low morale, rations began again to be irregular, inadequate and cut in half. Naiche asked certainly advises to his elders but they were unable to answer except maybe to leave this bad place. I think his last mentor alive, Goyakla, helped not much at this time because he was depressed and in doubts about his diyin. Since January 1877, his diyin did not help him to avoid the scouts attack, to prevent his arrestation, his time in jail with shackles on his ankles and to heal his people from the shaking illness. He also understood, like Naiche before, that the Chiricahuas could not live safely, anymore, on their homeland in USA. They had lost forever their territory. Moreover, they were under the full control of the Indian Administration and they were not free to decide their way of life in the reservation. For a such lover of freedom, Goyakla could not certainly admit that. And if he was respected, appreciated or asked by all the Chiricahuas for his skills and diyin before the reservations’ time, at this time as a war shaman, some of the Chiricahuas thought he was a troublemaker or was part of the past.
Then Naiche took his responsibility and certainly acting as the spokesman of the Chokonens, maybe with Pedes-kinjle for the Bedonkohes, he asked agent Hart permission to leave this location and to move elsewhere on the Reservation, preferably. Hart mostly concerned by his own business of mining, to avoid troubles to manage and to allow the Apaches to gather and to hunt traditional food, gave his authorization to Naiche to leave the low lands. He gave passes to go on mountains and the Chiricahuas left to the Santa Teresa Mountains few miles of the southeastern border of the San Carlos Reservation, at the beginning of the Summer. Naiche and the others leaders were unknown about the real activities of Hart and that he stole some of their rations. If they surprisingly knew, they did not care much because Hart permitted them to be lesser under the supervision of the White Eyes. And they could again hunt and gather fruits, mescal and other plants of their traditional diet. Women could again show their skills making tiswin with the corn they could get. And they, certainly with illegal trade, got white alcohol and maybe new weapons and ammunitions. The most important, being in the mountains, in few weeks nobody died from the malaria.
The men in the reservation had not much to do even in the mountains and there were, more often than in a free life, feats with tiswin and alcohol. After or during a drink party, last of June or early of July 1878, Goyakla, certainly little depressed and drunk, seemed to have said humiliating words to a teenage boy from his family. He treated as a non-Chiricahua’s man because he had not done his dikohe’s expeditions, which it was impossible in the reservation. The teenage boy committed suicide and, hangover, Goyakla was ashamed provoking the tragic gesture. He soon left with only his family the camp. Naiche and others thought when he would feel better, he would come back. But the ranchérias were just near the south border of the reservation and closer than elsewhere in San Carlos, of Mexico where his old comrade Tandinbilnojui lived as a free Chiricahua, stealing and killing Mexicans. A life that Goyakla liked much and in which his diyin was powerful. With his departure, the members of Goyakla’s gota followed, in San Carlos, the leadership of Zele, Nay-zar-zee and increasingly of Pedes-kinjle.
In late August, Naiche and his people returned at the sub-agency. Come back, the chief learnt that Grijalva was fired by Hart and the agent was absent being in the East. His brother was in charge but was unable to furnace enough rations. Then again, Naiche obtained rights to go in the mountains gathering nuts and hunting. 10th of September 1878, while moving to their new campsite, Naiche and his Chokonens were visited by three Nednhis warriors send by Tandinbilnojui, Nolgee and Goyakla. They had tried to get a truce with Chihuahua State in Janos like before. But the authorities of Chihuahua asked the Chiricahuas more to abandon than Americans to accept a truce. It was inacceptable for the three warlike chiefs. They sent these emissaries to know if in San Carlos their women and children could live safely and correctly. Naiche could just tell them, his people were less under the control of the agent, his people sleep well but was sometimes hungry because of scares rations and they always feared of evil spirits when living in the low lands of the Gila River. During the talking, the three warriors certainly explained they lived a risky life because of the raids and the possible retaliation, surely, but as they wished and their families were most of the time secure in the Sierra Madre, called Dzil-dotl-izhihi (Blue Mountains) by the Chiricahuas. Soon after leaving the Reservation, the three Nednhi warriors were attacked and two, killed. It would end the possible coming in San Carlos of the Chiricahuas living in Mexico.
With the winter coming Naiche certainly led his band to camp again near the sub-agency in the feared low lands of the Gila River. Here he heard that 25th of November 1878, the US Army brought back one hundred and seventy-two Chihennes in San Carlos where they camped near the agency. Only twenty were warriors. Jlin-tay-i-tith was their chief. Naiche learnt what happened to them when visitings took place during the winter. After surrender at Fort Wingate, the Chihennes were allowed to return in Ojo Caliente on straight control of the Army. The soldiers waited a clear decision from the Indian Administration for what to do about these Apaches. And finally, during the Summer the decision was to carry back the Chihennes in San Carlos. The Chiricahuas heard of that, some ten days before the soldiers told them. When the soldiers approached, they scattered in the mountains. But soon some were captured and others hopeless surrendered. Most of the warriors followed Kas-tziden and Bi-duye. Kas-tziden quickly moved to the Mescalero’ Reservation while Bi-duye, allied with Esquine’s Bedonkohes joined Nayila and his free Chihenne’s gota to launch a raid in Chihuahua.
In early December, a tragic news came in Naiche’s ranchéria. A Nednhi called Ah-dis arrived with some women and children. They explained they had, with miracle, escaped from a slaughter made by federal troups of Mexico in Janos. The Mexicans used their old trick telling Nolgee they wanted to talk. Nolgee and all of his gota came, confident, made truce and drunk. When the Mexicans thought the Chiricahuas were enough intoxicated they began to murder them. Thirty-three, men, women and children were butchered among them Nolgee. Some survivors went through to San Carlos with Ah-dis and the others joined Tandinbilnojui. This massacre marked the disappearance of the Ned-nda-i’s gota of the Nednhis. The last two stories demonstrated, to the Chokonens who wanted to leave San Carlos, that the Chiricahua Country was definitively lost and no safer for the Chiricahuas and that the territory around Janos was no more a place to live near. These sad events reinforced surely the choice of Naiche to stay in San Carlos despite the malaria and the shortage of the rations during the year. NEXT : 1.3. Corruption.
Last Edit: Jan 15, 2020 14:34:22 GMT -5 by coeurrouge