Post by kingsleybray on Mar 19, 2012 9:57:09 GMT -5
Makula told Mekeel that "his grand-father's name was Looking Elk and was a Cheyenne having three wives who were Wajaja. They were all sisters. Looking Elk was his [Makula's] mother's father."
So by birth Looking Elk was Cheyenne, marrying three Wazhazha sisters (later 1820s?) and becoming an important man among the Wazhazhas.
Incidentally I miswrote in the earlier post today that Walking Eagle was Looking Elk's son. I have corrected that. To confirm, Walking Eagle married one of Looking Elk's daughters.
Apart from his status as an 1851 delegate I don't know anything more about Looking Elk.
I agree the Wazhazhas are important and a thread should be started.
Most delegates/envoys were nominated and approved in formal council. Somehow Goose put himself forward without that "accreditation"! Incidentally the Goose family is sometimes included in Standing Rock Agency censuses with the Sihasapa band of Kill Eagle (see e.g. Ephriam's SITTING BULL SURRENDER CENSUS, p. 198). Kill Eagle's band was the Sihasapa Wazhazha - in some way an offshoot of the parent-band among the Brules and Oglalas. So it's tantalizing that a Wazhazha connection runs though the 1851 delegates. Looking Elk was Wazhazha Brule, Lone Horn likely had family connections to the Wazhazhas. So did Shell Man if the Quick Bear connection is correct . . .
Perhaps the Scattering Bear connection is important here.
Kingsley: Thanks for the further details of Looking Elk and Goose. Your idea about possible Wazhazha link to most of the delegates is very interesting.
With your remarks + Carlo's remarks in the thread Red Fish & Elk That Bellows Walking , we have 4 names of "fathers" to Lone Horn: 1. Black Bull (aka. Black Buffalo) 2. Red Fish 3. Looking Elk 4. Crippled Warbonnet It would be interesting to find out how all this fits.
Two independant pieces which perhaps belongs to this puzzle: a) We have Swift Bear as a father to Red Fish, from reply #9 in . b) We have Wazhazha leader Quick Bear, whose father was named Shell Man, from reply #13 above. I wonder if there is any link there ? Swift Bear = Quick Bear ?
The very interesting marriage of Southern Cheyenne Looking Elk (aka. Watchful Elk, Wary Elk) to three Wazhazha Brulé Lakhota sisters with resulting mixed-blood children and grand-children, is one of the glue between Lakotas and Cheyennes.
Which must have contributed to the acceptance of Brulé Lakotas to smoke the Cheyenne pipe at Solomon Fork in December 1864. When Cheyenne pipe bearers came to Brulé camps to ask for an assistance to revenge for the massacre of Cheyennes at Sand Creek.
It would be very interesting to know more about these three Wazhazha Brulé sisters (for example their names and family background).
Post by kingsleybray on Mar 23, 2012 17:28:10 GMT -5
It would indeed, hreinn, though at this late date I imagine we're not going to find out! We have to be grateful for the scattered clues we do have, like Makula's information to Mekeel, opening it up just so far.
I always think these words of Brave Buffalo (LaDonna's ancestor) to Frances Densmore apply to more than man and animals - they characterise the sort of search we're on trying to understand the deep past:
"The animals want to communicate with man, but Wakantanka does not intend they shall do so directly - man must do the greater part in securing an understanding" (Densmore, Teton Sioux Music, p. 172).
Yes I agree we must be grateful for the little we know today and make the best out of it.
But in this case as in similar cases, I suspect there exists some knowledge about this family by modern elderly Lakotas or Cheyennes. Perhaps not a full detail, but most likely some detail. Unfortunatelly we don't hear enough of the voices of modern Native Americans on this website. This website has the potential to be an interactive and a constructive platform for communication between Native Americans and non-Native Americans.
This thread is so interesting! Yes, he is the man sitting second from right. But who is he? Chief Storm (or Tempest) of the Arapaho or chief One Horn of the Sioux? He must be an important chief because he has been photographed alone and in group.
First, there is little doubt the man in the new daguerrotype is the same man than the man second from right in the group photo. A Dutch friend of Kingsley, Koos van Oostrom, has been so kind to share this comparison (Thank you Koos!!). He retouched and reversed the daguerreotype to make it more comparable to the portrait we already had. Awesome:
Delegate of 1851/52 by John Fitzgibbon
I have to admit, I was pretty sure the man is Lone Horn the way he looked in the group picture. But now I´m unsettled. You can never trust your eyes…
In an e-mail exchange with experts on material culture I´ve read that the kind of quilled medallion on the chest of the delegate shows that he is wearing a Sewing Society shirt, possibly Arapaho. So it could be the man indeed is Storm or The Tempest. On the other hand, remember the identifications Sandra Lowry has send us years ago, which cover original inscriptions on the picture. There we have Storm sitting probably third from left. Hard to figure out something definite. However, I guess all of us are thrilled that there is such an undiscovered image from 1851/52 stored in an archive. There may be more… !?
Last Edit: Sept 12, 2014 9:57:07 GMT -5 by Dietmar
If the original list send by Sandra Lowry is correct, i think that in the famous image are present ONLY 3 Arapaho (The Tempest-Eagle Head-Friday) and 3 Cheyenne (White Fawn/Antelope-Red Skin/Little Chief-Mounts the Clouds). To me Mrs. Lowry list is in a casual order, without to quote the exact position of everybody. The photographer had arranged them in this alternate order, from left to right: 1-FRIDAY (Arapaho) 2-RED SKIN/LITTLE CHIEF (Cheyenne) 3-EAGLE HEAD (Arapaho) 4-WHITE FAWN/ANTELOPE (Cheyenne) 5-THE TEMPEST/STORM (Arapaho) 6-MOUNTS/ALIGHTS THE CLOUDS (Cheyenne). NO SIOUX or other tribes men are in the photo. My suggestion have still more sense if we think that Cheyenne and Arapaho are always stayed allied. Then, of Friday, Red Skin, White Antelope and Mounts the Clouds we are certain for comparison with other them images. Considering that The Tempest was the more important Arapaho in that delegation (he deliver a speech in the occasion and the alone photo posted by Dietmar proved his importance), only remain Eagle Head, the third from left and the shorter and minute of all.
This is the same group picture of the delegation as we have posted before, but with handwritten captions made at the time, perhaps by Father De Smet. It was published in one of his biographies. The captions match to the list Sandra Lowry has sent me. Probably she typed the names from this picture.
We do know for certain three Indians in the image: Friday, White Antelope and Alight-on-a-Cloud. So it´s likely that we have to start reading the list in this order (apart from the interpreters Smith & Tesson, who stand in the back), first on the left from bottom to top (Friday, Eagle Head, the Tempest), than on the right from top to bottom (White Fawn/Antelope, Red Skin, Mounts the Clouds).
This would make sense to me... BUT, Red Skin is not a Cheyenne name but the Lakota delegate Red Plume "Obalawska" aka Red Tailed Eagle. We have him in two other portraits with feather bonnet and noticeable war-shirt, the same applys to Little Chief. In my opinion both are not in this group picture at all.
So who is the man sitting second from right? And if the shirt he´s wearing is of Arapaho design, is the suggested order wrong and he´s Storm/Tempest?
Last Edit: Sept 15, 2014 16:58:54 GMT -5 by Dietmar
I don´t know if this is of interest to anyone but me, but I´ve tried to reconstruct a timeline of the Plains Indian delegation that travelled to the east Coast in 1851/1852 from various sources, newspaper clippings, articles and books. I find it impressing what it must have meant for the travelers to go such a distance in the several month they were away from their homes.
As always, I´d be happy if anyone could add or correct information. For example, what would be the exact path of travel from St. Louis to Washington in 1851? I guess by boat on the Ohio river?
Timeline 1851/52 delegation
September 8, 1851: begin of official talks at Horse Creek near Ft. Laramie
September 17, 1851: signing of the Horse Creek Treaty
September 23, 1851: distribution of Treaty presents
September 24, 1851: the delegation set out for St. Louis, following the Oregon Trail to Fort Kearny early in the morning
- meeting German travelers Price Paul Wilhelm of Würrtemberg and Balduin Möllhausen at junction of Ash Hollow and South Platte
October 2, 1851: reaching Fort Kearny, council with Pawnees, Alights-on-a-Cloud refuses to make peace
- from Fort Kearny D.D. Mitchell and a party of whites he brought to the Horse Creek Treaty grounds (Robert Campbell, an old fur trader; Adam B. Chambers, the Missouri Republican´s senior editor; Benjamin Gratz Brown, a reporter & lawyer from St. Louis) took the “Table River route” (possibly to Table Creek, site of first Fort Kearny and today´s Nebraska City; first along the Platte river, then south-east to Old Ft. Kearny) Father DeSmet, the Indians, Edmund F. Chouteau & Thomas Fitzpatrick took the “southern route” (the Oregon-California trail from Ft. Kearny along the Little Blue river to the Kansas river), crossing Indian territory (to show Indians the progress of Indian Territory tribes); the latter were escorted by Cap. Thomas Duncan and Lt. Washington L. Elliott with companies C and E of Mounted Riflemen
- delegation picked up 2 Otoe chiefs and women
October 11, 1851: delegation stayed two days at St. Mary´s Mission on the Kansas River, welcomed by Bishop John B. Miege, to visit the Potawatomies; they attended high mass
October 16, 1851: delegation arrived in Westport (Kansas City)
- party picked up two Iowa men and one women, who had been stranded
October 18, 1851: delegation still at the Union Hotel, waiting for a boat, while Mitchell was seen at Weston (north of Westport) on Steamboat Clara
- the delegation took steamboat Clara for St. Louis and likely here reunites with Mitchell
- Crow delegate died after leaving the delegation in Brunswick, Chariton County, Missouri
October 22, 1851: arrival in St. Louis with steamboat Clara (Mitchell, Fitzpatrick, Commissioners Col . Chambers, B.G. Brown, Col. R. Campbell, Rev. Father DeSmet, 15 Indians and interpreter Tesson and Smith and Edmund F. “Guesso” Chouteau )
- visiting officials and leading merchants
- Chambers, Brown, Campbell & Chouteau apparently left the delegation in St. Louis
October 24, 1851: That evening the delegates were the honored guests at a banquet of the Jesuits at St. Louis University
- probably while here pictures were taken by daguerreotypist John Fitzgibbon
November 12, 1851: delegation (13 males, 2 females. 2 interpreters) passed through Pittsburg
November 15, 1851: arrival of four men and three women of the Iowa tribe in Washington
Between Nov 15 and 19: Arrival of Plains delegation in Washington, they stayed at Maher´s Hotel
November 19, 1851: first official visit to President Fillmore
December 4, 1851: visiting Central Market
- visiting several military forts and the arsenal
December 18, 1851: visit to the Navy Yard at Washington
December 25, 1851: Mitchell arrived in Washington (possibly he had left the delegation alone for some time)
January 6, 1852: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Luke Lea takes delegation to a meeting with President Fillmore (present: Mrs. Kossuth and daughter, Mrs. Fillmore, Mr. Crittenden, Mr. Stuart Hall), Indians received presidential silver medals and American flags
January 8, 1852: visit to Lajos (Louis) Kossuth, Hungarian in exile, at his rooms in Brown´s hotel and receiving medals
January 11, 1852: delegation leaves Washington to the West
March 3, 1852: DeSmet reported that the Indians with Fitzpatrick have returned from Washington
End of April 1852: Fitzpatrick conducted the group at Fort Leavenworth, shortly thereafter they headed to their country, escorted by a band of soldiers
Summer 1852: Cheyenne delegate Alights-on-a-Cloud was killed in a battle with Pawnees
February 7, 1853: Edmund F. Chouteau, eldest son of Francis G. Chouteau, dies in Jackson county, Mo.
unfortunately the Crow´s name is not mentioned in any of the articles I have read so far. The only information I have is this often cited note by one of the correspondents.
"There was a Crow brave in the delegation who came as far as Brunswick, when, whilst the boat lay up during the night, he suddenly left, without notice to any one, and no trace could be obtained of him. The supposition entertained was, that he had become home-sick or tired, and would attempt to return to his nation. This was strengthened by his observing a boat going up that evening, the first he had seen passing up. In the evening he appeared as cheerful as usual - and when he left he borrowed the knife of one of the Cheyennes. Very diligent search was made for him that night and the next morning, but no trace of him was discovered. Col. Mitchell offers a reward of one hundred dollars for finding and delivering him at his office in this city. If he has not committed suicide or been unfairly dealt with, but is attempting to get back home, it is very desirable that he should be delivered to the Superintendent. With the exception of Friday, the others have not before seen the white settlement. Their nations gave them up to the Great Spirit, when they selected them to go - and in the event of the death or loss of any one of them, it will be difficult to explain and reconcile it to the nation. This is peculiarly the case in this instance, as there was but one Crow in the delegation, and he was along without an interpreter, except as he could be communicated with by signs." (Published in the Missouri Republican on October 22, 1851)
Last Edit: Dec 31, 2014 10:52:47 GMT -5 by Dietmar