Post by kingsleybray on Feb 27, 2010 5:34:01 GMT -5
Ephriam has posted background information about Hamilton's photographic activities at Ft Randall and Sioux City in the 1860s and 70s - see the Photographers area of American-tribes. Today in reading the accounts of the treaties held at Ft Sully with the Lakotas in October 1865, printed in
South Dakota State Historical Society, Report and Historical Collections, Vol. IX (1918)
I found at
the following transcript from a contemporary newspaper report:
[dateline] "Fort Randall, D. T., Nov. 6, 1865.
Mr. C. L. Hamilton, photographist, is here from Fort Sully, where he has been engaged in securing pictures of the Indian Chiefs who have signed treaties of peace and those who declined so doing, copies of which -will be forwarded to Washington."
As far as I know these photos have never seen the light of day. Where could they be? In Washington, as the item indicates? Surely Hamilton kept his own originals? In someone's trunk?
If they are somewhere extant these would be historic early portraits of some of the most important Teton and Yanktonai leaders of the day. Lone Horn, Lame Deer, Crow Feather, Running Antelope, Grass, Two Bears, Big Head, Black Catfish, and scores more were present at the councils.
With regard to the Teen warrior (see Dietmar's or Naiches2's post). There is a picture of a Yankton youth - The Pretty Rock (Son of a Yankton chief) - in the Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection.
We have posted this group photo earlier in the ‘photographer: Byron Gurnsey‘ thread.
Ephriam has assumed it was rather taken by Charles L. Hamilton. The American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts, labels the image as ‘Indian Treaty at Fort Sully, Dakota Terr., 1865.’
I had saved a sample of the picture from another unknown source with the information ‘Yanktonai Dakota at Old Fort Sully, Oct. 20. 1865’. Wherever this info is from, in the meantime, I think it is - at least - only partly correct. Instead I assume the photo shows leaders of the Lower Brule.
During October, 10th and October, 28th 1865 several treaties were signed at Fort Sully. The Miniconjou with Lone Horn and Lame Deer were the first to sign: Oct. 10: Miniconjou Oct. 14: Lower Brule Oct. 19: Blackfeet Lakota & Two Kettle Oct. 20: Sans Arc, Hunkpapa, Yanktonai Oct. 28: Upper Yanktonai & Oglala
In my opinion, three of the Lower Brule signers can be seen in the picture. This would make it likely the photo was taken by Hamilton on October 14th 1865.
Two prominent chiefs are sitting left of the center, Iron Nation and Medicine Bull:
Another of the Lower Brule chiefs, Iron Whip, is likely the man sitting second from left:
Two portraits of Iron Whip have been for years in my collection, but I didn´t know that he actually was a Lower Brule. I wouldn´t be surprised if one of theses portraits was also taken by Hamilton:
Please don´t confuse this Iron Whip with the Ponca leader of the same name. Portraits of the Ponca Iron Whip show he is another man.
All three men - Iron Nation, Medicine Bull and Iron Whip – are listed as Lower Brule treaty signers of 1865:
Chiefs: Muz-zah-wy-ah-tay, The Iron Nation, his x mark. Tah-ton-kah-wak-kon, Medicine Bull, his x mark. Pta-son-we-chak-tay, The One who Killed the White Buffalo Cow, his x mark. She-o-tche-kah, Little Pheasant, his x mark. Pta-san-man-nee, White Buffalo Cow that walks, his x mark. Chon-tay-o-kit-e-kah, The Brave Heart, his x mark. Tah-o-pee, The Wounded Man, his x mark. Wag-ah-mo-ah-win, The Gourd Ear Rings his x mark. E-chap-sin-ta-muz-zah, The Iron Whip, his x mark.
Chief soldiers: Ze-te-kah-dan-sap-pah, The Blackbird, his x mark. Wah-hah-chunki-e-un-ka, The Shield that Runs, his x mark. Muck-a-pee-e-chash-nah, The Cloud that Rattles, his x mark. Is-to-o-pee, The Wounded Arm, his x mark. Min-do-ton-kah-che-kah, The Little Partisan, his x mark. Wah-min-dee-shon-ton-kah, The War Eagle with Large Feathers, his x mark.
Another question is, are there only Lower Brule in the photo or leaders of other tribes as well?
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 9, 2016 6:41:17 GMT -5
Exciting interpretation, Dietmar. I have the printed council proceedings of the 1865 Ft Sully treaty. Talk were held with the Lower Brules across two days -- October 11th (Wednesday) and 14th (Saturday). The talks on both days were held on board the steamboat Calypso.
On the 11th the chiefs present were:
Iron Nation Medicine Bull Little Pheasant One Who Killed the White Buffalo Cow
On the 14th the same chiefs, PLUS White Buffalo Cow That Walks, were present. These five seem to have been the principal Lower Brule chiefs of the period. I would expect them to be present in the photograph.
There was no official activity by the Peace Commission on October 12-13th.
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 9, 2016 8:53:49 GMT -5
The fifth Lower Brule chief, White Buffalo Cow That Walks, is mentioned in an interesting context. On October 14th commissioner Curtis asked Iron Nation if he was the head chief of the Lower Brules.
Iron Nation replied: "No. This old man, 'The White Buffalo Cow That Walks', was the head chief, but he is not now. He is too old. He is the father of Medicine Bull."
So -- an older man, probably upward of seventy years of age? Could he be the man wearing the medal seated to the right (looking at the picture) of the putative Medicine Bull?
Iron Whip -- I wonder if he was the eyapaha (herald, crier) for the chiefs? He is seated at the end as if ready to make announcements and convey instructions to the akicita (represented by the man at extreme left holding a tomahawk).
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 11, 2016 8:40:52 GMT -5
Dietmar, grahamew, and other eagle eyes: does the Lower Brule chief Dead Hand (whose photo we have in the Lower Brule bands thread) appear in this 1865 shot? Bear in mind he would be 20 or so years older in the Bell portrait. My guess is that Dead Hand was also known as The One Who Killed the White Buffalo Cow, the 1865 signatory.
My first impression watching the picture is that the man with the Peace medal next to Iron Nation looks like the wazhazha leader Quick Bear (Mato Ohanko). I admit he looks a little old being in 1865, but the resolution is not so high and watching later pictures the resemblance is strong. I can't even find him in any delegation signature list (Dietmar confirms an Upper Brulé delegation wasn't at Fort Sully), unless he went under another name. However wazhazha frequently shifted between Brulé and Oglala so he could have been there with the latter tribe. I don't even know any of the Oglala treaty signators. Any thought about: Chief Long Bull, Tan-tan-ka-has-ka; The Charging Bear, Ma-lo-wa-ta-khe; The Man that Stands on a Hill, Pa-ha-to-na-je;