Post by emilylevine on Aug 27, 2009 13:21:41 GMT -5
Does any one know how to find the record of these negotiations for the Black Hills? I can't seem to locate them in the U.S. serial set. The basic texts mention the delegation, but are surprisingly brief. Is there a complete list of delegates? THANKS for any help. Emily
Post by kingsleybray on Aug 27, 2009 17:10:04 GMT -5
There are some documents at National Archives-Kansas City, Emily, in the Pine Ridge Records, e.g. 'Council Held by Comm. of Indian Affairs with Delegation of Sioux . . . June 3rd, 1875." That's Box 779, Pine Ridge Records. I read the reference in the endnotes to Catherine Price's "The Oglala People", p. 201, and wrote off to KC for copies. The notes on that page are useful, flagging up council minutes in the "Red Cloud Agency Investigation" volume. There is a copy of that at Nebraska State Historical Society. Also the fullest source seems to be the run of NEW YORK TIMES stories listed by Price. Today they're all accessible online. Like you I haven't found an extensive printed record.
I haven't seen a single document which lists delegates. I may have to add to this, but it looks to me that they were like this:
Miniconjous: Lone Horn White Swan Red Skirt (Long Neck) Spotted Elk (Big Foot)
Sans Arcs: Martin Charger
Two Kettles: Long Mandan Rattling Ribs
Spotted Tail Swift Bear Crow Dog He Dog Ring Thunder
Red Cloud Little Wound Sitting Bull Pawnee Killer Face (Scalp Face) Black Bear Bad Wound & wife American Horse Iron Horse Fast Thunder Shoulder
Billy Garnett also mentions these from Red Cloud: High Lance, Conquering Bear, and White Tail; and from Spotted Tail, Good Voice. I'm not sure if he's right on these - they don't appear in the big group photo (though neither does Red Cloud), and he may be confusing some with the 1877 delegation, when Good Voice and White Tail were delegates. High Lance or Tall Lance is mentioned several times in agency records of 1875, he must have been a prominent akichita officer that year at Red Cloud.
Post by emilylevine on Aug 27, 2009 21:57:08 GMT -5
Kingsley Thanks for all your work on this. I have Diplomats in Buckskin and had looked at the NYT articles. When the NSHS opens again I'll check out the PR records. I appreciate the list. Odd that we can't find some sort of transcript, but perhaps the meetings with Grant et al were more informal than a regular council. Everyone mentions the trip, but no one says all that much about it. thanks again. Em (ps CR from NARA went out on Monday)
Post by kingsleybray on Aug 28, 2009 4:44:42 GMT -5
The list I gave is incomplete. I've used the group photo outside the Treasury Building (Dietmar - should we post that again here?) as the base identification, but there are some people to add, also some ambiguities (multiple names for same person, etc.). I'll try and check all my sources over the next few days, then edit the list.
The fullest secondary account seems to me to still be OLSON, Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem, which has full footnotes for sources. Even though I need to go back to the primary sources to comb out the details on Lakota internal matters, I still find Olson useful to orient myself with the sources. More later.
In addition to the names Kingsley mentioned, Garnett also said that Bull Eagle and No Fat ("who went under another name") were delegates from Cheyenne River in 1875. (see: Ricker, The Indian Interviews, page 82)
Hi Shan, Swift Bear was an important Brule Chief. He deserves to have an own thread on our boards, asap.
Last Edit: Aug 28, 2009 15:18:51 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Post by emilylevine on Aug 28, 2009 15:59:07 GMT -5
Shan , Swift Bear was the uncle of Susan Bordeaux Bettelyoun, so you can read a little about him in her book With My Own Eyes. He was chief of the Sichangu Corn band. Also, Hyde's Spotted Tail's Folk can give some general information about him. Swift Bear: father: Sunka Isnala Lone Dog, grandfather: Tawapasha Red Warbonnet, Sisseton Santee (Red Top Tipi Band), grandmother: unknown Sichangu woman mother: Ptesanwin Gray Buffalo Woman, uncle: Wanbli Ohitka Brave Eagle 3 brothers: Peta maza Iron Fire, Mato Cikala Little Bear, Maga Goose 1 sister: Huntkalutawin Red Cormorant Woman
Dietmar, I think I have too many sources swimming in my head right now, and I had forgotten the info on the 1875 delegation that is posted on the main page.
Meanwhile, I found some coverage of the 1875 delegation in „The Commonwealth“ newspaper:
TOPEKA, KANSAS, DAILY COMMONWEALTH
WASHINGTON. The Delegation of Sioux Chiefs Call on the President. They Express Themselves as Pleased to Talk With Their Great Father. The Commonwealth, May 20, 1875. THE SIOUX CALL ON THE PRESIDENT. Washington, May 19. The Sioux Indians are now here to negotiate with the Government for the sale of the Black Hills, in their reservation, and called on the President today, accompanied by Assistant Secretary Cowan and Commissioner Smith. The President received them in his office, and after shaking hands with each one, said he could not talk with them to day on the subject of their visit, but desired them to talk freely with the Secretary of the Interior and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and that if any disagreement arose, he would endeavor to right them. He desired them to accept the statements of these officers, regardless of any statement made to them by others. Lone Horn said he was glad to see the great father. He then said he did own some of this great country, but white people wanted to take it away from him. My great-grandfather, my father, and myself were chiefs. I am a chief. I never claimed I owned all the country before today, but now I claim it. I own it alone. These men you see, alluding to the Indians around him, are soldiers and will fight. At this juncture the President interrupted the chief by stating that he did not wish to have discussed the object of their visit today. Spotted Tail said he was glad to see the Great Father and wanted to have a great talk with him soon. Red Cloud said if the President did not appoint a day to see himself and the other chiefs, he would be very sorry. The Indians then withdrew. As Secretary Delano is absent from the city and is not expected to return till Friday or Saturday, the grand council will not probably take place before Monday next.
INDIANS AT WASHINGTON. The Commonwealth, Tuesday Morning, May 25, 1875. The Eastern papers are making the usual amount of fuss over the visit of Red Cloud, Spotted Tail, and other Indian chiefs to Washington, and some of the more tender-hearted journals are mourning because the President informed some of the Indians that Secretary Delano and Commissioner Smith were the gentlemen with whom they were to transact their business. It seems to us that these pilgrimages of greasy, ignorant savages to Washington are unnecessary and even harmful. If the stories we have heard of the course taken by interpreters and others having charge of the Indians when traveling are true, the Indian’s moral character is anything but improved by the society he is introduced to in Washington. The Indian “talks” in Washington amount to nothing. He is simply an expense while he remains at the capital, and he goes back to his country or his reservation the same stupid, stolid brute he was when he left it. The Indian has a genius for robbery, torture, and murder, but none for diplomacy. Messrs. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail might as well have remained at home. If any considerable number of white men wish to go to the Black Hills, they will go there, treaty or no treaty. The rule has always worked that way, and it always will. The Indian is determined to die, and visits to Washington will not long postpone the result. Suffer him to run at large and he will rob and murder, and will in return be hunted down and killed. Shut him up on a reservation and he will die from the effects of his vices. He is a thoroughly bad subject. It is no favor to the Indian to endeavor to protect him; to hold out promises to him. He cannot be saved, for he insists upon his own destruction. There is no future for him, and it is a lie to tell him there is. Treaties are things of a day; made to be annulled. Let the Indian alone. Let him go to the happy hunting grounds without any more idle talk, or useless visits to the Capital of the nation.
WASHINGTON. The Sioux Chiefs and the President Have a “Big Talk.” The Commonwealth, Thursday Morning, May 27, 1875. Washington, May 26. The Sioux Indian delegation called on the President today, accompanied by Gen. Cowan, acting Secretary of the Interior, and Smith, Commander of Indian Affairs. They were received by the President in his private office. As each Indian entered he advanced to the President, and being presented by the interpreter, shook hands with him. The Indians then arranged themselves in a semi-circle around the table, Spotted Tail and Red Cloud having prominent positions. A large number of ladies and gentlemen were present, including Gov. Pennington of Dakota, Gov. Thayer of Wyoming, and ex-Gov. McCormick of Arizona. The President, through Wm. Fielder, an interpreter, then addressed the Indians as follows. “I want to say to the Indians today something about the object of bringing them here and a few words for them to think about, but nothing for them to reply to for the present. I have always been a friend to the Indians, and am very anxious to do what I think best for their good. The country where they now live, as they must be well aware, is entirely incapable of supporting them should the Government cease to give them aid. By the treaty of 1868, clothing was granted to them for thirty years and provisions for only five years. The food and provisions, therefore, which have been given to them for the last two years has been gratuitously on the part of Congress. These may be taken from them at any time without any violation of the treaty. My intention is to make some arrangement with them by which they and their children will be secure for the future.” Several of the Indians expressed their approval of these sentiments by exclaiming “ugh ugh.” The President resumed: “As I said in the beginning, it must be evident to them if the supplies of food should be withheld by the Government, it would be impossible for the Indians to live where they are. Another thing I would call their attention to—is this: They must see the white people outnumber the Indians two hundred to one, taking all Indians within the Territories owned by the United States; the number of whites is increasing so very rapidly that before many years it will be impossible to fix any point within the limits of our territory where you can prevent them going. It will become necessary that white people shall go from one place to another, whether occupied by Indians or not, the same as they go from one State to another. For this reason it is very desirable that while they have friends here to look after their interests, they should be situated where they would be able to get support beyond any contingency. I do not propose to ask them about their consent to leave their homes where they were born and raised, but I want to point out the advantages to them and their children, and if they will accept such arrangements as may be proposed to them, the territory south of where they now live, where the climate is better, where the grass is much better, and where game is more abundant, such as buffalo, where there is good pasturage for animals, and where teachers can be sent among the Indians to instruct them in the arts of civilization, and the means of self-preservation and support. This year we have had great difficulty in keeping white people from going to the Black Hills in search of gold, but we have so far prevented them from going. Every year this same difficulty will be encountered, unless the right of white people to go to that country is granted by the Indians, and may in the end lead to hostilities between the whites and Indians without special fault on either side. If such trouble should occur and become general, it would necessarily lead to the withholding, for the time being at least, of the supplies which the Government has been sending to them. All this trouble I want to avoid. I want to see them well provided for in such a way that arrangements will have to be accepted by my successor and other administrations in the future. I want the Indians to think of what I have said. I do not want them to answer today; I want them to talk among themselves and be prepared to hear from the Secretary of the Interior and Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who are authorized to speak for me, and will be governed by my advice. This is all I want to say to them.” Spotted Tail then advanced toward the President, and looking toward the representatives of the press, who were taking notes, made a short explanation in relation to the published statement, to the effect that the Indians had stigmatized the Secretary of the Interior and Commissioner of Indian Affairs as liars. He said such charges were not made by him, and whoever put this in the papers, made them up themselves. He did not call his strongest friends liars. The Indians then withdrew, evidently disappointed in not having had an opportunity to reply to the President. They were in full costume, with a plentiful supply of paint and feathers.
THE INDIAN QUESTION. The Commonwealth, June 1, 1875. Washington, May 31. The Indians have been holding councils among themselves today, and although they are not fully agreed on their policy, they have decided to meet the Secretary of the Interior tomorrow and reply to his propositions. Prof. Marsh called on the President this morning and had a long conversation with him on Indian affairs. The Professor showed the President some statements from army officers, confirming former reports of the bad character of the supplies furnished the Indians at the Sioux agencies. The President expressed an interest in the welfare of the Indians, and a firm disposition to correct any abuses in their management. He seemed to think that the best way to secure honest delivery of supplies to the Indians was to have them sent through the commissary department of the army. He expressed a determination to keep all intruders out of the Black Hills till the Indian title is extinguished.
WASHINGTON. Spotted Tale [Tail] Refuses to Sign the Treaty. Notwithstanding All the Logic Delano Can Command. The Commonwealth, June 5, 1875. PHOTOGRAPHED. Washington, June 4. The Indians were photographed today in groups. Red Cloud, however, declined, saying his picture could be had for $25. SIOUX STILL PERSISTENT. The Indians and Secretary Delano had a short conference. The Secretary said if they did not believe him, and do as he advised, he was afraid they would hereafter believe him to their sorrow. If they would take the $25,000 he would try and get $25,000 more for them next winter. If they did not, he would refuse to let them have the privilege of hunting on the Smoky Hill Fork any longer. He could not afford to have the peace of the country disturbed and the danger of murder being committed. A commissioner had been sent to the Black Hills to see if there was any gold there. Neither he nor the President knew whether there was any there or not. If there was, it would be impossible to keep the people out. The Indians cannot always restrain their young men, neither can we always restrain our people. If gold was found there, the government would pay them liberally for the lands. There were portions of the Big Horn country that the Indians did not use and the government would buy that at a fair price. He desired them to take all that had been said to them home to their people and obtain an answer and send word back to him as soon as possible. Spotted Tail said the Great Spirit had told him never to steal anybody’s country without paying for it. If you had some sense of right, we could get along well enough. The Secretary upheld that he had not accused him, or his people, of stealing, and did not want Spotted Tail to accuse the government of stealing from him. We don’t expect to steal their country, and we are not going to send an army up there to take it from them. They don’t give us credit for our desire to do them good. Spotted Tail said he wanted to talk about his agency matters before he went home, and he would like to go home tomorrow after breakfast. The Secretary here withdrew, telling the Indians that they might talk all night with the Commissioner about their agencies if they wanted to.
THEY ABANDON THE GREAT FATHER AND PROCEED TOWARD THE SETTING SUN. The Commonwealth, June 6, 1875. LO’S CHARACTERISTIC MODESTY. Washington, June 5. The Indians called at the Interior Department this morning, to say good-bye to the Commissioner, when a short interview took place. They expect to start for their homes tonight. The Cheyenne River Indians will stop for a few days in New York. The agents return with them, though it is understood the resignation of Agent Saville is at the disposal of the Department. As the Indians entered the Interior Department, the Commissioner said: “I understand that some of you want to speak. I would be glad to hear anything you have to say.” Red Cloud: “My friend, we are going home today and the young men you see here want to shake hands with you and bid you good bye. We call also to ask about something we have not heard about. I would like to ask about the pay for those who came with me, the interpreter and all.” Indian Commissioner: “There is something to be said about those men who have come along that I would rather not be obliged to say to you. They have not come by the wish of anybody but themselves, so far as I know, and they have been sources of mischief and trouble ever since they came here. They got you to insist on going to the Washington House, and they got some of you to go there after I told you that it was not a proper place for you. They have led you into bad practices since you have been here, and now they have the impudence to come and ask me to pay them for that sort of service, and I leave it to you to judge whether I had better do it or not. That is all that is to be said on that subject. I have told your agent for you, in getting such presents as you want, to spend twenty-five dollars apiece; this is in addition to what you have already received in suits and clothes and other things that your agent has bought for you. I wish I could make it more, and do for you what you ask in that respect, to furnish each of you a horse with saddle and equipments, but that I am not able to do, because I have not money to make purchases.” Little Wound. “You tell the truth when you say that you did not invite the interpreters to come along with the Indians. We have heard that before, but had we come with only three interpreters belonging to our delegation, these three interpreters would have disputed as to what we said; we invited these others there to come in order to be witnesses on our return as to what was done. As to myself, I am not influenced by these men. They wanted to come with us, and now say we have deceived them. They blame us for not getting paid. We came here at the invitation of the President, and we expressed a desire to go home with horses, equipments, and guns so that our people would receive us gladly. If we go home without anything of the kind, when we arrive there the people will laugh at us.” The Cheyennes called on Commissioner Smith this afternoon, and complained considerably about the failure of the Government to do anything for them since their arrival here, saying that the Indians that did the best got treated the worst by the government. Tall Man said if he learned to lie like Spotted Tail and Red Cloud, he would have fared better from the government. Lone Horn pointed to Mrs. Kelly, saying, “That lady that sits over there our people once did a wrong to her that we can never pay her for. If you can pay her for us, I wish you would.” Mrs. Kelly’s husband and little daughter were killed by the Sioux and herself taken capture a few years ago. After handshaking the Indians left and will return home by way of New York. The President presented Sitting Bull with a fine rifle, nicely mounted and enclosed in a case. On the brass mountings surrounding the lock is engraved: “Sitting Bull, from the President, for bravery and friendship.” The Cheyenne Indians request the Commissioner to appoint Rev. S. D. Hinman and Rev. J. P. Newman commissioners to go out and aid in negotiating the Black Hills matter.
THE BLOODY RED SKINS MUM. The Commonwealth, June 8, 1875. New York, June 7. Spotted Tail, Red Cloud, and the other Indians connected with that party have been in the city today. They say little in regard to their future action, and express no opinion as to the course of the government in the business which took them to Washington. They leave tomorrow morning for Omaha.
Maggie Appleton, niece of Agent J. J. Saville from the Red Cloud Agency, listed the 1875 delegation members from that Agency, fourteen people total:
Red Cloud Tall Lance Fast Thunder Bad Wound Red Bud (wife of Bad Wound) Shoulder Conquering Bear Face Black Bear Sitting Bull Iron Horse American Horse Pawnee Killer Little Wound
Emily: regarding the 1875 transcription, there is a detailed typed transcription of the 1875 meetings in Washington in the Kansas City records cited by Kingsley above. These include May 26 (4 pp), May 27 (15 pp), June 1 (19 pp) and June 5 (9 pp).
Relative to photographs of the 1875 delegation, there are two known images (the best one posted above by Dietmar) taken by an unidentified photographer from the patent office, produced in the open court area of the Interior Department Building in Washington, D.C.
There are two known photographs of the Oglala and Brule members of this delegation taken by Frank F. Currier on May 13, 1875 in Omaha as they were headed for Washington, D.C. One of these images at least was reprinted by another Omaha photographer, E. L. Eaton.
Finally, we also know that when the Oglala and Brule portion of the delegation arrived back in Cheyenne after visiting Washington, D.C., they were again photographed, this time by Cheyenne photographer W. H. Masters. I have not been able to identify any of the portraits for certain though there was a cdv by Masters labeled Grey Cloud that appeared on Cowan Auctions last year. I suspect that this is one of the lost 1875 delegation photographs, perhaps one of the younger Brule members such as Ring Thunder.