Okay, but all Cheyenne and Kiowa delegates are sitting in the front rows... and you can clearly see Caddo Jake standing behind, for instance. About the other ones... we need to see a better resolution scan to be sure.
Eventually I have found a better scan of the 1863 delegation group photo we discussed before. I have put my identifications on it, but of course they need to be discussed.
I´m not sure about the man sitting behind White Bull and Lone Wolf. I think he´s not one of the Arapahos, who are not in the picture at all. If he´s Indian, the only one left is Poor Bear.
I know the Cheyennes are variously identified, but I follow Peter J. Powell´s IDs.
Here are a couple of newspaper accounts of the 1863 trip:
DAILY TIMES [LEAVENWORTH, KS], March 14, 1863, p. 3, c. 3 Departed.—Our aborigine brethren of the West and South-West have departed.—Little Bear, Spotted Wolf and the other braves left last evening on the Majors, the first "fire ship" that these sons and daughters of the wilderness have ever seen. They will excite considerable attention on the route to Washington, as very few of the eastern people have ever seen genuine Comanches, or veritable yellow Kiowas. The "Poor Bear" of the Apaches will be a "lion" in the saloons of the Capital, and the Spotted Wolf of the Arapahoes, as much of a curiosity as Barnum's "What is It?"
DAILY TIMES [LEAVENWORTH, KS], March 14, 1863, p. 3, c. 4 Aboriginal Art.—Addis & Noell's art gallery was yesterday the scene of an incident of unusual interest even for the West. The Indian delegation, under Maj. Colley, assembled there at an early hour in the forenoon for the purpose of having their painted features transferred to paper by the magic operation of the camera and chemicals. The Indians saw much in the gallery to surprise and astonish them; but with that stoicism characteristic of the race, no trace of emotion was even for a moment visible on their stolid countenances. The reflections of the large mirror in the room seemed to puzzle the dusky warriors, perhaps more than anything else under their observation, and they stood in turn before it for some time. Little Bear of the Kiowas seemed to have an idea that the mirror was in some way connected with the process of picture making, and he stood before it for some moments, as rigid and unmoveable as a warrior cast in bronze. The reflection from the convex supporters of the mirror were also objects of special interest. Mr. Noel succeeded in getting some admirable negatives of the entire delegation in groups, those of each tribe being taken together on a large plate. The Arapahoes and the delegates from one other tribe were taken card size and will be much easier preserved in albums, into which numerous copies will no doubt soon find their way. Nera, of the Arapohoes, was taken in a standing posture, his brawny chest and shoulders exposed, and firmly grasping his bow and arrows in his right hand. Spotted wolf is on the same plate, though setting. The Kiowa squaws are both very young, the features of one of them being regular and rather pleasing than otherwise. When told that each would be presented with a copy of the photograph on their return from Washington they appeared perfectly satisfied, and took their leave by shaking hands one by one with every person in the room, including several ladies who happened to be present. Jacob, of the Texas Caddos, seemed to be rather an Ishmaelite among his red brethren, none of the others appearing to notice him in the least; and he was never "counted in" when the pipe was passed round. One of the Kiowas has a large silver medallion head of Jefferson, which is kept in the tribe as a sort of hereditary legacy to the chief. Addis & Noell, will have copies of the delegation for sale in a few days. They will be "speaking pictures" of the West and Southwest.
from: Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Volume 6. Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865.
Speech to Indians March 27, 1863
``You have all spoken of the strange sights you see here, among your pale-faced brethren; the very great number of people that you see; the big wigwams; the difference between our people and your own. But you have seen but a very small part of the palefaced people. You may wonder when I tell you that there are people here in this wigwam, now looking at you, who have come from other countries a great deal farther off than you have come.
``We pale-faced people think that this world is a great, round ball, and we have people here of the pale-faced family who have come almost from the other side of it to represent their nations here and conduct their friendly intercourse with us, as you now come from your part of the round ball.''
Here a globe was introduced, and the President, laying his hand upon it, said:
``One of our learned men will now explain to you our notions about this great ball, and show you where you live.''
Professor Henry then gave the delegation a detailed and interesting explanation of the formation of the earth, showing how much of it was water and how much was land; and pointing out the countries with which we had intercourse. He also showed them the position of Washington and that of their own country, from which they had come.
The President then said:
``We have people now present from all parts of the globe---here, and here, and here. There is a great difference between this palefaced people and their red brethren, both as to numbers and the way in which they live. We know not whether your own situation is best for your race, but this is what has made the difference in our way of living.
``The pale-faced people are numerous and prosperous because they cultivate the earth, produce bread, and depend upon the products of the earth rather than wild game for a subsistence.
``This is the chief reason of the difference; but there is another. Although we are now engaged in a great war between one another, we are not, as a race, so much disposed to fight and kill one another as our red brethren.
``You have asked for my advice. I really am not capable of advising you whether, in the providence of the Great Spirit, who is the great Father of us all, it is best for you to maintain the habits and customs of your race, or adopt a new mode of life.
``I can only say that I can see no way in which your race is to become as numerous and prosperous as the white race except by living as they do, by the cultivation of the earth.
``It is the object of this Government to be on terms of peace with you, and with all our red brethren. We constantly endeavor to be so. We make treaties with you, and will try to observe them; and if our children should sometimes behave badly, and violate these treaties, it is against our wish.
``You know it is not always possible for any father to have his children do precisely as he wishes them to do.
``In regard to being sent back to your own country, we have an officer, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who will take charge of that matter, and make the necessary arrangements.''
The President's remarks were received with frequent marks of applause and approbation. ``Ugh,'' ``Aha'' sounded along the line as the interpreter proceeded, and their countenances gave evident tokens of satisfaction. Annotation
Washington Daily Morning Chronicle, March 28, 1863. The Chronicle account of the ceremonies which preceded Lincoln's speech reads in part:
``The Executive Mansion was yesterday morning the scene of a very interesting ceremony. The Indian chiefs now in the city met the President of the United States and had a formal interview with him. The meeting took place in the East room. Quite a number of persons were present, among whom we noticed Secretaries Seward, Chase, and Welles, Daniel S. Dickinson, of New York, Professor Henry, and other celebrated personages. The Indians were all seated on the floor in a line, and around them the spectators formed a ring which, notwithstanding the assiduous yet polite efforts of Mr. Nicolay, was still too contracted to permit all to see the principal actors. The silence, which would seem to be the part of common propriety on such an occasion, was by no means observed by the restless and eager crowd of visitors. Everybody seemed to find some one's bonnet or shoulder in the way, and to think himself or herself entitled to the best and most conspicuous place. The ladies, too, could not refrain from audible comments on the speeches.
``Still everything went off very well. These Indians are fine-looking men. They have all the hard and cruel lines in their faces which we might expect in savages; but they are evidently men of intelligence and force of character. They were both dignified and cordial in their manner, and listened to everything with great interest. At half-past eleven the President entered the circle, and each one of the chiefs came forward and shook him by the hand, some of them adding a sort of salaam or salutation by spreading out the hands, and some contenting themselves with a simple shake of the hand and the inevitable `how' of the Indians of the Plains. The following is a list of the chiefs:
``Cheyennes.---Lean Bear, War Bonnet, and Standing Water.
``Kiowais.---Yellow Buffalo, Lone Wolf, Yellow Wolf, White Bull, and Little Heart.
``Arapahoes.---Spotted Wolf and Nevah.
``Comanches.---Pricked Forehead and Ten Bears.
``Mr. Commissioner Dole introduced them. . . .
``The President said: `Say to them I am very glad to see them, and if they have anything to say, it will afford me great pleasure to hear them.' ''
Speeches were made by Lean Bear and Spotted Wolf, through an interpreter, and by Lincoln as reported above.
“Starving Bear [Lean Bear] stands at the right, holding the long-stemmed pipe of a Council Chief. Nearly fifty winters old, he had sat in the sacred circle of the Fouty-four [council chiefs] since 1854, representing his Hese-omee-taneo-o. War Bonnet sits next to him, holding his Chief´s pipe (however it is possible that War Bonnet is standing at the right, with Starving Bear seated in the center). A cousin of the great White Antelope, as well as Chief of the Oevemanaho, War Bonnet was some fifty-nine winters old at this time. Standing in the Water, cousin of War Bonnet, sits beside his relative. He, as a warrior society headman, does not carry the long-stemmed pipe of a Council Chief. Standing in the Water was about forty-nine winters old at this time. A mature and respected leader of the fighting men.” (see Peter J. Powell: People of the Sacred Mountain, Volume I, page 246)
There will probably never be a proof who is who in the photos of the Cheyenne delegation, but I believe Powell´s identification is compelling. Standing in the Water was the youngest of the Cheyenne delegates, and he wasn´t a council chief, but a warrior society leader. It is very likely he is the one without a pipe in the photos. Starving/Lean Bear was the chief of the highest "rank" or esteem among the three chiefs, so likely he is the one standing.
Last Edit: Dec 17, 2010 10:44:29 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Now this is interesting. I found an article in the New York Times Archive that contains a letter by Major Colley, the agent who guided the 1863 Plains delegation to Washington.
In his letter Colley lists the names of the Indian delegates and clearly states that White Bear was among the Kiowa delegates. Remember that other publications have corrupted the name to White Bull.
April 7, 1863 The Indians of the West and the White Men of the East.; LETTER FROM MAJOR COLLEY.
Maj. COLLEY, United States Indian Agent, has addressed the following letter to Mr. BARNUM, of the Museum. That gentleman, hearing of the presence of the Indian Chiefs in Washington, whither they had gone on matters of business connected with the Government, wrote to Maj. COLLEY, inviting to this City these distinguished representatives of the aborigines, promising them valuable presents and courteous treatment during their stay. As will be seen by the following letter, Maj. COLLEY has acceded to the proposition, and the war party of the West will soon make their bows to the white men of the East.
WASHINGTON, D.C., April 4, 1863.
DEAR SIR: I have received yours of yesterday. In reply I would state that I am willing to comply with your request. The argument you use -- that an opportunity should be afforded them to see New-York, Philadelphia Baltimore, &c. -- I admit to be right and just. These great Indian Chiefs under my care, noble and brave as they are, are also very poor. The presents which you assured me they will receive will be most acceptable to them. Those given to them by the public as well as by yourself, will please them beyond my power to express. You are most likely aware that in this respect they resemble children. Indeed, their child-like simplicity, combined with their prowess and their wisdom, offers a curious study to those not acquainted with Indian character. The twenty chiefs and their squaws include the pick of the following tribes the Cheyennes, Kiowas, Apaches, Arrapahoes, Caddos and Comanches. I will give you a few of their names. Among them are Lone Wolf. Yellow Buffalo, White Bear. Little Hart, and the squaws Etta and Coy, all belonging to the Kiowas. Then there are War-Bonnet, Stand-in-the-Water, Lean Bear, Poor Bear, Spotted Wolf, Prickced Forehead, and Ten Bears. Their names may sound oddly to you, but you will find the bearers of them to be very pleasant fellows. As they never slept on beds, I must trouble you to procure rooms where they can spread out their blankets and sleep on the floor. You will also please procure bread, raw beef and coffee, all of which they will cook in their own rude Indian style. They will also want some paint and some oil, which can be easily got. I hope to have them in your Museum on or before Wednesday next, the 8th inst. As you may guess, however, all our forms of civilized life are irksome to them, and to be confined in a city too long is injurious to their health. So, I cannot promise you that they will be contented to remain beyond a few days. I am sure they will prove very interesting; for Indian warriors of their rank, so very recently arrived from their own homes, have not been seen in any of our great cities for many years -- if, indeed, at all. The interpreter and myself will accompany them to New-York; and I feel certain that they will be well treated, and everything done to make them happy. Your visitors, in addressing them, will, of course, bear in mind that, though poor according to our ideas of wealth, they are most influential in their own country, and are the bravest, best and wisest of their tribes.
I am the manager of the Olathe Memorial Cemetery in Olathe, Kansas. In our old record books from March of 1863, we have listed as buried an Indian Chief en route to Washington DC. I have done some research and the only Chief that is not in any of the pictures or listed as in attendance is Poor Bear. For years we have tried to figure out the name of our buries chief so that we can erect a monument and an information sign with his story. Can anyone verify if our chief en route to Washington DC is in fact Poor Bear of the Apache Tribe?
welcome here in this forum and thank you very much for your input.
Regarding Kiowa – Apache chief „Poor Bear“ , this chief was alive in 1867, because he was a signatory for his tribe during the Medicine Lodge Treaty .
In 1863, there were fourteen southern plains chiefs invited to Washington D. C . . Unfortunately, Kiowa chief Yellow Wolf died some days after meeting the president , but he was buried at the Congressional Graveyard. Personally I found no hint, that another chief or delegation member died en route.
But, in 1863 there were other Indian delegations in Washington, for instance an Ute tribe delegation. Maybe, a member of another delegation died en route.
We already discussed the Plains delegation of 1863 and wondered about the identity of White Bull, a Kiowa delegate. Some accounts name him White Bear, not Bull, hence that some (me included) thought that he could had been the legendary Satanta (Set'tainte, White Bear).
Recently I´ve found this newspaper article of 1863 that makes it more probable, that this Kiowa was White Bull, son of Dohäsan (Tohauson, variously spelled), the principal leader of the Kiowas from the 1840s to 1860s.
"Twenty Indian chiefs and warriors, with their squaws, appeared at Barnum´s Museum yesterday afternoon for the first time. These red men of the forest are the parties who have recently been on a visit to Washington to see their “Father Abraham,” the President of the United States. They represent the various tribes of Kiowas, Comanches, Apaches, Arrapahoes, Caddo and Cheyennes. Among them are the following famous chiefs: Lone Wolf, a second-rate chief and noted warrior; White Bull, son of the great chief, Tahasan, a great fighter and leading partisan; Yellow Buffalo, a distinguished peacemaker and a true friend to the white man; Little Heart, a treacherous, bad man, and the leader of a band of bad men – he has the reputation of having scalped a large number of whites; Poor Bear, an old man now on the shelf, formerly a great man in his tribe; Spotted Wolf, a second-rate chief, a famous warrior and great partisan; War Bonnet controls a hundred lodges, and is a chief of great influence; Pricked Forehead, an old chief, or sort of lawyer among the Indians; Ten Bears, a chief and counselor of note. These Indians are plumed, painted, and dressed in the costume of their different nations." [New York Daily Tribune, April 10, 1863, page 4]
White Bull, Kiowa, 1863
White Bull, Kiowa, 1863
White Bull, Kiowa, 1863
Last Edit: Jan 10, 2018 17:56:01 GMT -5 by Dietmar