Post by ronpapandrea on Dec 1, 2012 19:26:19 GMT -5
You cannot make out Black Bull's face in the photographs. What is interesting about the photographs is the captioning beneath them and the fact that friendly Canadian soldiers are included in the photographs.
Post by ronpapandrea on Dec 2, 2012 20:54:10 GMT -5
No. There are two separate photos featuring Black Bull in front. He is wearing a long coat and holding a three bladed hatchet. It is a long shot so his face cannot be clearly seen. Yes, the photograph you have posted is the one I am referring to. The second photograph is similar to the first. They are on pages 13 and 21 of "1885, The Experience of the Halifax Battalion" by Robert A. Sherlock. The original book is posted online but does not contain the photographs. The reprint (available for $15) includes the photographs.
Post by ronpapandrea on Dec 2, 2012 21:26:48 GMT -5
Regarding the photograph with Frank Yates and Deadwood Charlie: Frank Yates was the brother of Captain George Yates, killed with Custer. Frank was a trader at Spotted Tail and Red Cloud agencies, 1874-1877. In January, 1876, he ran a stage line via these agencies to the Black Hills. Frank left the area in 1878. Black Bull (wrongly identifed as "Feathers On-His-Head") was a Brule Lakota, probably at Spotted Tail prior to June, 1876. I believe the photograph was taken at Spotted Tail or Red Cloud Agencies. Deadwood was founded in the Black Hills the summer of 1875. No one would be called "Deadwood Charlie" until that time. Black Bull was at the Little Big Horn, June 25, 1876. Allowing time for his travel, the photograph was taken Summer, 1875 to May, 1876.
At Wood Mountain Post this is labelled Spotted Eagle, the Sans Arc leader (presumably because of the club). I always doubted this. Elsewhere, I've seen it labelled as a Cree village. Interesting to see that this might be Black Bull. What's the other photo?
Puh, history is hard work! It is not easy to distinguish the different Black Bulls. I'd like to add this:
1. Black Bull (Brulé) at Moose Jaw/Canada This man is mentioned in different Books which don't deal with Indian history in the first place. E.G. in „Canada's Wheat King: The Life and Times of Seager Wheeler“ by Jim Shiliday. The Englishman Seager Wheeler came 1885 to Moose Jaw where he got in contact with Sioux. In his biography by Jim Shiliday we read on page 17 the following:
Considering the above we can say that this Black Bull remained in Canada. And in "Caregiving on the Periphery: Historical Perspectives on Nursing and Midwifery in Canada" by Myra Rutherdale we read on page 121:
(this was after 1885)
Condensed I/we have this:
Tatanka Sapa, Black Bull (d. 1897), Brulé Lakota, who fled to Canada, but remained there after other bands returned to the United States. He and his people lived near Moose Jaw. The final Sioux reserve in Canada, Wood Mountain, was established in l9l3 Tasinaskawin (Brule / White Blanket Woman) was the widow of Black Bull, head of the local band. Mrs. Wallis arranged for her burial in Moose Jaw Cemetery and for the headstone which reads simply: “Tasinaskawin Brule, died April 3, 1910.”
But maybe there was another Black Bull (Hunkpapa?) with Sitting Bull in Canada?
Here are the other candidates / riddles still to solve:
2. Black Bull (Hunkpapa or what?)
Here a better version of the stereoview:
3. Black Bull (Brulé by Gardner 1872)
4. Black Bull (Oglala ?)
5. Black Bull (A "Sioux" by Julia Tuell, 1916)
6. Black Bull (Brulé) as mentioned by Dietmar (from the Rosebud group photo)
I believe I have some more information on the No. 2 & 3, but I have to look up my archive (that's also no easy task ).
Black Bull #2 was a Hunkpapa who MAY have gone to Canada with Sitting Bull, but he is not our man; he returned and was employed as a scout at Fort Yates and was photographed as late as 1900 (see the photo on the first page of this thread).
Ron has established Black Bull was a Brule who stayed in Canada and referred to in the first post (though at the time I assumed he was Hunkpapa) and that may be his likeness there. I don't think that's him in the group photo; I think it IS Feather on the Head, who had scouted for the army in the late 1870s and I suspect the photo dates at least from the late 80s. Not a reliable guide, I know, but the long breastplate became more fashionable around that time.
Here's Feather in his Head (sic), supposedly photographed in Iowa in 1891:
Ladonna has shot down the relationship to Sitting Bull angle, but I wonder if there wasn't some tenuous realtionship by marriage.
It's interesting that he's a Brule, bearing in mind how few there were at Little Bighorn; I wonder if he was already affiliated with the Hunkpapa. In which case, I wonder if he crossed the border with Sitting Bull or whether he was with the later arrivals, having surrendered at an agency first.
Unless there was another band of Sioux at Moose Jaw, presumably the Indians in my post above (not all women, despite the written label), being fed by members of the Halifax Battalion, are Black Bull's band...
Last Edit: Dec 3, 2012 16:00:25 GMT -5 by grahamew
Post by ronpapandrea on Dec 3, 2012 17:48:43 GMT -5
I believe Black Bull and Short Bull are next to Mrs. Black Bull. Notice the sheriff shield badge on her husband. The gravestone of the Mrs. Black Bull buried in the old Moose Jaw cemetery has a sheriff shield design around the inscription. Frank Yates sold his business and moved out of the Dakota Territory in 1878. He was very upset about the killing of his brother at the Little Big Horn. The Lakota reserve at Wood Mountain, Canada was established October 29, 1910.
Here is some information on the above photo with Yates and Gordon.
According to Mike Stevens „Tiospaye web“ was Feather On Head or Feather In Head an Oglala Lakota. Also known as Wiyaka Aopaza (?) He was born in 1831/32 and he married Yankton Woman about 1868. Feather On Head died in 1904 and was interred at Messiah Cemetery at Wounded Knee, Shannon Co.
Francis (Frank) D. Yates (1846-1925), brother of Captain Yates 7th Cav, operated one of the Indian trading stores at the Red Cloud Agency, home of the Oglala Lakota. The Wyoming territorial legislature passed a bill in Dec, 1875 authorizing the establishment of a daily passenger and express service between Cheyenne and the Black Hills of Dakota Territory. William H. Brown and his son-in-law Frank D. Yates started to carry the mail to Spotted Tail Agency via Red Cloud Agency in Jan, 1876. The first stage of F. D. Yates & Company started on Feb 3. In 1878 a Jack Gilmer and Monroe Salisbury of Ogden, Utah, purchased the Black Hills Stage from Frank Yates and his father-in-law.
According to „The Caledonian Advertiser of June 5, 1890“ (fragment), Caledonia / New York
Charles B. Gordon and „Feathers-on-his-Hat“ were members of the Forepaugh and Sells Brothers' aggregation (a big Circus). Adam John Forepaugh (1831 - 1890) was in 1887 the first to incorporate a "Wild West Show" into his circus. Forepaugh may have been first to stage a re-enactment of “Custer’s Last Fight” as a regular act. Buffalo Bill did not re-enact Custer’s Last Stand until a year later
Gordon was acolourful character . In the Caledonian Advertiser article he was introduced as „professor Charles B. Gordon of Philadelphia“
and in the Watertown N.Y. Daily Times as „agent for the Cream Indigo Bluing Company“
who alway met Chief Feather On Head (or Feather-on-his-Hat!) by chance and exchanged joint experiences. It seems quite possible that the above photo was created on the Circus Tour about 1890. Maybe Yates accompanied the Oglala as a kind of manager or "chaperone"
I wonder what particular incident the article refers to 24 years earlier.
Ladonna - judging by the appearance of the man in the (potential) Goff photo on page 1 of the thread, taken, I guess, in the mid-late 70s, IF this man is Hunkpapa and not Yanktonais, then Black Bull #2 must be the one born in 1841.
Black Bull by Goff(?)
This is the same man photographed at Fort Yates in 1900 - three years after the death of the Brule Black Bull in Canada in 1897. In fact, the photo posted above of Black Bull on the Canonball Reservation was taken even later, in 1907 by C.L. Wasson. I believe he was one of the scouts or policemen involved in the events leading up to the killing of Sitting Bull. I'd have to check, but I think this is in My Friend, The Indian.
Donivin Sprague's book Standing Rock Sioux confuses this man with the Black Bull in Canada. He prints the photo of the Hunkpapa Black Bull posted on page one of this thread, taken at Crane's Studio on July 13, 1900:
However, he also prints this drawing made by the Brule Black Bull, just above this photo on page 53:
Ron said in the last post on the previous page of this thead that he no longer thought Black Bull fought alongside the Metis. In a report entitled 'The Campaign Against Riel,' dated April 28, 1885, in the Buffalo Daily Courier, there is more evidence for this: "Major Walsh has wired J. A. L'rka Sappa [sic - this is scanned, which may count for the spelling!] (Black Bull) to meet him at the Moose Jaw station. The Sioux Indians here are ther remnant of the Sitting Bull nation and adore Major Walsh in whom they have every confidence."
You know according to our ways this Black Bull the Brule-Burnt thigh who was with Sitting Bull in Canada and fought with him would call each other brother because of an adoption "Hunka" ceremony but it did not mean they were related by blood.
I wondered about that - and, of course, the whites who met him or knew of him wouldn't fully grasp the nature of the hunka relationship and through their misunderstanding, Black Bull has come to be known as Sitting Bull's brother...