Legend says that when Lewis & Clark visited the Yanktons in 1804, one headman in the camp became father of a child. The explorers arranged to see the new born boy, and they wrapped him in an American flag. It is said that the prediction was made he would become a great leader of his people someday.
Indeed, the boy who was later called Struck-by-the-Ree, became one of the most remembered intancans of the Ihanktons. He succeeded the famous War Eagle, who died in 1851, as “head chief” or better the most influencial intancan of the Yankton bands.
As a chief who was trying to accomodate with the Whites, he was much critizised for his signing of the Treaty of 1858, when the Yanktons signed away most of the lands they hunted on.
Nevertheless he stayed an important and respected leader when the Yanktons had to deal with their new life on the reservation. Old Strike died in 1888 and was buried in the Presbyterian cemetery near Greenwood.
Struck-by-the-Ree by A. Z. Shindler 1858
Struck-by-the-Ree by Vanneson & Cohner 1858
Struck-by-the-Ree, Charles Picotte & Smuty Bear by Vanneson & Cohner 1858
Struck-by-the-Ree & Feather in the Head (should be Feather in the Ear)
Pa-la-ne-a-pa-pe Struck by the Ree (ca. 1804-1888)
The first of 15 Indian names on the Treaty of 1858 - which made the settlement of Yankton possible - was Pa-la-ne-a-pa-pe or the Man That Was Struck by the Ree. His mark was followed by those of Smutty Bear, Charles F. Picotte (Eta-ke-cha), Crazy Bull, Iron Horn, One That Knocks Down Two, Fast Bull, Walking Elk, Standing Elk, the Elk With the Bad Voice, Grabbing Hawk, Owl Man, White Medicine Cow That Stands, Little White Swan and Pretty Boy.
Separating fact from fiction, however, about the Yankton's principal chief continues to be a dilemma for historians.
Legend says, as a boy, Struck by the Ree was wrapped in an American flag by Lewis and Clark near the site of the future territorial capital - but journals of the famed explorers fail to mention the event.
Even more controversial has been the chief's name. Did he strike the Ree or did the Ree strike him? For purposes of this report, we'll use Struck by the Ree from the treaty document and assume the story of his partial scalping by an Arickara warrior was true. However, another version says he avenged the murder of his brother by killing a Ree adversary with a spear. In that case, he supposedly earned the title of Strike-the-Ree.
George W. Kingsbury - who was at Yankton during the village years and knew the chief personally - used the latter name in his writings. Similarly, the Frost-Todd Trading Post Ledger, kept by George D. Fiske at the Indian camp in 1859, listed the Sioux leader's account under the heading of "Strike the Rhee."
Regardless of his proper name, his key role in the eventual settlement of white in southeastern South Dakota remains. Unfortunately, for his involvement in the cession of land and subsequent removal to the reservation, Old Strike was vilified by many of his own people for the rest of his life.
Even though his name was affixed to the treaty, Smutty Bear angrily challenged Struck by the Ree's so-called surrender to the white man, but Old Strike prevailed. On the reservation, it was said malcontents constantly harassed Struck by the Ree. His cabin was burned, and his ponies were killed. Lore also says a warrior named Aka once shot a gun loaded with a blank cartridge in Old Strike's face to show disdain for the chief's actions.
To his credit, Struck by the Ree was a realist. Though he may not have wanted to see old traditions disappear, he recognized inevitable change. He has been quoted as saying:
"The white men are coming like maggots. It is useless to resist them. They are many more than we are. We could not hope to stop them. Many of our brave warriors would be killed, our women and children left in sorrow, and still we would not stop them. We must accept it, get the best terms we can get and try to adopt their ways."
Despite opposition, Old Strike continued to promote peace and industry among his people. He was credited with convincing his militant young warriors not to join the ill-fated Santee Uprising of 1862, while at the same time warning white settlers of potential danger.
Later, he spoke regularly to assembled members of his tribe from the roof of his small cabin, encouraging them to work, learn and avoid physical confrontation.
He also preached the preservation of trees and other natural resources on the reservation. "If you do not save your timber," he said, "the time will come when you will fish for driftwood and fight over it."
For his efforts on behalf of peaceful white and Indian relationships, Old Strike received medals from three US presidents - Franklin Pierce, Ulysses S. Grant and James Garfield.
Although he was baptized at an early age by Fr. Pierre Jean DeSmet, Struck by the Ree later came under the influence of Rev. John P. Williamson and adopted the latter's Presbyterian faith.
The Yankton chief - revered by some and hated by others - died on July 28, 1888, at the Greenwood Agency. Along with his medals, he was first buried on the edge of the Presbyterian cemetery established by Rev. Williamson. Some 16 years later, his remains were moved to the center of the cemetery, and the exhumed medals were presented to his kinspeople. He apparently had five children, but there is little, if any, public record of his wife and immediate family.
Following his reburial, a granite monument was erected at his final resting place; and it, too, added to the varied spellings of his name. Carved into the stone is a phonetic inscription in his native tongue: Padaniapapi Huhu Tawa Den Wanka Ihanktonwan Iye Tokoheya Christian Wocekiye En Mniakastanpi. Freely translated, it says that "Here lies the remains of Struck-by-the-Ree, the first Yankton to be baptized a Christian." Also inscribed are the words: "He was in his day the strongest and most faithful friend of the whites in the Sioux Nation."
Ironically, Old Strike has been largely forgotten by later generations; and, sadly , the great burdens he bore during the transitional years of cession and settlement have been too often overlooked or dismissed in history's recording.
Struck by the Ree - Pa-la-ne-a-pa-pe, Padaniapapi or Apadani - was undoubtedly a man of more substance than the later-day portrayal of him has reflected.
I believe Struck-by-the-Ree and Feather-on-the-Head/in-the-Ear are together in this group photo by Stanley Morrow:
Chiefs of the Yankton Sioux with their Indian Agents. Photos—S. J. Morrow Collection, courtesy of the W. H. Over Museum, University of South Dakota (Struck-by-the-Ree sitting second from left, Feather-on-the-Head sitting third from left)
Can we discern any other individual?
Last Edit: Sept 29, 2016 10:23:00 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Emily has sent me this photo of Yanktons in Washington:
[Struck-by-the-Ree is standing far right]
This posed photo that includes Struck by the Ree is from Museum News (University of South Dakota Museum), Vermillion, March-April 1967. This issue also includes some interesting Ella Deloria material that she received from Antelope (Yankton)...I'm always looking for more Yankton things. I'm not sure that this material appears in the other Antelope material in the on line Ella Deloria Archives. Thanks Emily
This is what I collected and compiled about "Old Struck". Some information is already mentioned in the above posts, I hope some is new.
(1804 – 1888)
Struck-By-The-Ree or Padaniapapi was a famous and important Yankton leader of the Igmu Tanka band. When a young man, a Ree (also called Arikara or Padani) Indian counted coup on him during a skirmish - and allegedly scalped him partly (the reason why he mostly wore a cap!?) -, so the name stuck (according to Russell Means).
Padaniapapi was head of one of the seven councils or bands and spokesman for the Yankton Nation. He was born in a village on the banks of the Missouri about 1804. According to oral traditions, on the day of his birth the village at Calumet Bluff was visited by an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Padaniapapi’s father, a headman, proudly displayed his newborn son to the white visitors. Lewis or perhaps Clark swaddled the infant in an American flag, held him up and proclaimed him as destined to be a great "American”. Pierre Dorion, the French fur trader who acted as interpreter predicted that the child would become a loyal friend of the whites and a leader of his people. But the journals of the explorers fail to mention this event.
Although he fought many battles against native enemies of the Yanktons, he thought it wise to be on good terms with the white people. As an adult, Padaniapapi became a mesmerizing orator. In 1837 he signed a treaty with the U.S. as head warrior under Za-ya-sa (Warrior). And in 1856 he was one of the spokesmen in the council with General Harney at Fort Pierre, where he and others signed a “treaty” which was never ratified by US Congress. In 1858 he was the main advocate for a treaty with the US government, where his nephew Charles Picotte played a leading role.
By 1829 Struck-By-The-Ree’s sister – the name was Eagle Woman, but not to confuse with the famous Mathilda “Eagle-Woman-That-All-Look-At” Picotte-Galpin - was married to Honore Picotte (1796 - 1860), a wealthy French fur trader. Their son was Charles Felix Picotte (1830 – 1896?). In 1858 Charles made his own deal as land speculator. As interpreter Picotte was member of the 1858 Yankton delegation in Washington and the only member of the Yankton treaty delegation who could read English. Making every effort at the treaty signing to accommodate the U.S. government, the “duly authorized agent” Picotte (Eta-ke-cha) inscribed the marks of three headmen who had remained behind with their bands along the Missouri and the treaty was concluded. For his services as “interpreter” the United States rewarded Charles Picotte a 640-acre section of prime land. A Land Speculator J.B.S.Todd helped him to develop the acreage into the town of Yankton, sixty miles east of Greenwood and Picotte became rich. Later Picotte, however, moved back to the Yankton reservation when he was forty-six. Some say he did die broke.
On the reservation, it was said malcontents with the 1858 treaty constantly harassed Struck-By-The-Ree. His cabin was burned, and his ponies were killed.
But Struck-By-The-Ree was a realist and a strong advocate for peace with the white people. During the 1862 Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, he positioned his warriors to protect white settlers from raiding Santee Sioux. In 1865, Struck by the Ree testified at hearings of the Doolittle Commission, which investigated fraud among Indian agents.
And Struck-By-The-Ree was a devout Christian. In 1864 he and his wife “Anna Mazaitzashanawe” were baptized as catholics by Father DeSmet, but later, under the influence of Rev. John P. Williamson, he changed to the Presbyterian Church. As an elder, he walked with a cane, and the congregation would respectfully wait for the old chief to enter the church and take his place in the "bishop's chair" before commencing with services. When Struck-By-The-Ree died in 1888, he was buried by John P. Williamson at the Presbyterian Cemetery at Greenwood, south of Wagner (South Dakota, Yankton Reservation).
In his lifetime Struck-By-The-Ree was married to three women; it is said all were Hunkpapa (?). One source says that his first wife, Tatehenaptewin, (Whirlwind Bullalo Woman) either died or shared her husband with three other wives. Other sources call his oldest (first?) wife Rising Flame (?), another was known as Anna Mazaitzashanawe.
It is said that “Old Strucks” eldest (living?) son was No Heart (? – 1934), also known as Medicine Joe, who was a respected healer. But maybe he was a nephew. Other sons were probably Stone Man and Bobtail Bear, a sister was married to a Black Cloud. Other names for the sons may be Mato Duta (Red Bear) and Shunka Wakan (Horse, ?). Then there are sources saying that Mad Bull was a son of Struck-By-The-Ree and that Itehota (Greyface) – a younger brother of Mad Bull - was also a son.
A known descendant of Struck-By-The-Ree is the late ethnologist Dr. Leonard Bruguier. Further descendants live today on the Lower Brule Reservation.
What else is known, what has to be corrected? what do we know about the wives and children?
Last Edit: Sept 19, 2015 12:08:13 GMT -5 by gregor
Post by debstar76 on Sept 23, 2016 15:37:04 GMT -5
Dietmar and Gregor, Thank you for this new information on Struck By The Ree, I've been hoping to find something on him. In my search for information on my husbands great great Grandmother Iron Door woman who was 4/4 yankton Sioux, as her daughter Adele Cordier papers say. She was said to be a 1st cousin to Struck By The Ree, Iron Door Woman aka Mary Cordier, father was is listed as Greyface. In your post is the first time I've seen his name mentioned. Iron Door woman, or Mary Cordier married a Frenchman by the name of Charles Victor Cordier, and their son John was also baptisted by Father Pierre DeSmet near Scottsbluff, Nebraska, near Medicine Creek, Sept 25 1851. I would love to see or read anything else you may have on this subject. Thank you so much, Deb Janis Cordier
Last Edit: Sept 23, 2016 15:46:13 GMT -5 by debstar76
I came across this, which was labelled Struck by the Ree:
... and this in the Newberry Library's collection, showing Yankton ;eaders leaving Yankton, passing the residence of Charles Picotte. You can see that the dress of some of the men matches those in the Morrow photo Dietmar posted:
Last Edit: Apr 19, 2020 15:34:47 GMT -5 by grahamew