1. Fire Lightning 2. John Grass 3. Two Strike 4. Com´r T.J. Morgan 5. American Horse 6. High Hawk 7. High Pipe 8. Young-Man-Afraid-Of-His-Horses 9. Hollow Horn Bear 10. Crazy Bear 11. Medicine Bull 12. White Ghost 13. Quick Bear 14. Little Wound 15. Fast Thunder 16. Spotted Horse 17. Spotted Elk 18. Grass 19. Dave Zephier 20. Louis Richard 21. Clarence Three Stars 22. Big Mane 23. Big Road 24. Hump 25. Good Voice 26. White Bird 27. He Dog 28. One To Play With 29. Pete Lamont 30. Wize 31. No Heart 32. Mad Bear 33. Straight Head 34. F.D. Lewis 35. Maj. Sword 36. Turning Hawk 37. Robert American Horse 38. Rev. Luke Walker 39. Bat Pourieau 40. Alex Lecontreau 41. Louis Shangrau
I also have a newspaper article referring to the 1891 delegation, which went to Washington shortly after the Wounded Knee Massacre:
COMPLAINTS OF THE SIOUX. JOHN GRASS AND OTHERS TALK TO SECRETARY NOBLE IN WASHINGTON.
WASHINGTON, Feb. 7. – The conference between Secretary Noble and the Sioux Indian delegation was begun this morning at the Interior Department. The secretary of War, Mrs. Proctor, and Miss Proctor were present, and also the wife of Secretary Noble and Miss Halstead, Miss Dawes, Miss Kate Foote, Miss Alice Fletcher, and others prominent in the work for the Indians were interested spectators.
After some brief remarks by Secretary Noble, John Grass at once began to speak of the recent trouble among the Indians, the origin of which he did not know. The Indians, he said, did not desire to be driven back to their wild life, but wished to consult with the President so as to determine upon the future. They wished, he said, to speak on certain matters talked over when the Indians were here last and the promises in regard to which were not carried out. He protested against the practice of blaming all Indians for what was the fault of a few. The Indians believe that if they are honest in trying to put their children to schools, and if they followed the teachings of Christianity, they would be going in the right road. The Indians regarded these as important factors, and they also thought it desirable that the agents should be civilians rather than military. They desired a continuance of the present system in this respect. In the past, he said, the Indian agents had opportunities to steal, but now the good people in the East maintained such a close watch that it was difficult for them to adopt such practices. The agents in late years, he said, were good men. In speaking of his own reservation, that of Standing Rock, the threatened trouble had been put down by the Indian police. They believed in the Indian police, and he was requested to ask for an increase of fifty men. Grass then shook hands with the Secretary and took his seat.
American Horse was the next speaker. He displayed considerable natural ability and made a graceful preface to his remarks, referring in complimentary terms to the Secretary and ladies present. He then asked if the Secretary thought it was good to curtail the speech of a man who had something to say so that he did not have the chance to say all he intended. This question created some laughter. The Government, he said, had made mistakes in its attempts to civilize the Indians. Instead of the positions at the agencies being filled by Indians, white men crowded them out and took the places. This was one reason why the Indians were called lazy. At the agencies, he said, the white men were so numerous that they fairly trampled on the Indians. What this people wanted was a chance to rise and fill the positions of trust and consequence that were within their reach. He desired that some attention should be paid to the wishes of the Indians in regard to the men to be agents. The Indians were able to tell as well as white men what men were competent. The agents, he said, naturally selected their own relatives to fill the positions under them. He thought that the Indians would receive these appointments if justice were done.
He then spoke of religious matters, and said that there were three religious bodies in their reservation who were trying to teach them to live better lives, and especially to bring about religious marriages. But they did not want to be compelled to marry certain persons. The Secretary inquired who had sought to compel them to marry. American Horse replied that he referred more particularly to persons who eloped. When the couple were brought back the agent obliged them to get married. The speaker than asked that the losses suffered by the Indians in the late disturbance be made good by the Government. He urged that a remedy for a good many of the present troubles would be for the Government to go back to the treaty of 1868 and redeem some of the promises then made. The money backs, as he called the money which had been promised them, must by this time, he thought, have reached a good age and have grown, and the distribution of the sums due would be of great service. He favored the removal of the Carlisle School to the West, as the Indian children would not then suffer in consequence of a change in climate and their modes of life. He said that the contract with the Indians was that their children be sent to the schools in the East and upon their return they would be given positions on the reservations. This, he said, had not been done.
Several other Indians made speeches, and then the Secretary told his audience that the Government had been trying to do what was right for the Indians and would continue to do so. He advised them to think over the many things the Government had done for them, to look at the promises made by Gen. Crook, and to have confidence in what he said. The Secretary said he wanted the Indians to make up their minds to do the best they could to educate, or to have educated, their children, and never to let their young men dream that they could ever get anything by force from the United States. The Secretary´s speech closed with renewed assurance of friendship. (The New York Times, February 8, 1891)
The Army Is Censured by the Indians, Who Allege That the Seventh Cavalry and Other Soldiers Massacred Their Defenseless Women and Children Without Mercy In Revenge for Custer and Lieutenant Casey's Murder.
There were not so many spectators at the Indian council this morning. As the atmosphere was colder than on Monday the Indians did not suffer so much discomfort from the heat. Commissioner Morgan commenced the council at 10:30 o'clock by asking whether the chiefs had any other speeches they desired to submit in writing. He held a written speech of Straight Head from Cheyenne River, requesting that the Indian police be Increased, and that serviceable arms and ammunition be provided. The Commissioner stated that he had requested Congress to authorize the additional force.
Good Voice from Rosebud Agency was the first speaker. The Commissioner reminded him that this was the last council that would be held, and that he would furnish them with copies of the agreement with General Crook, which had been made law.
"The stock that I have raised," said Good Voice, "was stolen from me by the White people. There were about fifty-four head. I want the capable boys who have been educated to be given positions in the agency under the Government."
Commissioner Morgan read a telegram from Captain Fierce stating that the children of American Horse and Spotted Horse, who were present, desired permission from their fathers to join the party that will leave Pine Ridge to-morrow for the Carlisle School. Both chiefs readily assented, and the Commissioner telegraphed back their consent. Quick Mare, an Ogallala from Rosebud, who was friendly to the Government during the late trouble, made a short address. He asked for more blacksmiths, placed at convenient points, so that their ploughs could be fixed without being compelled to wait three or four days. Commissioner Morgan then told Rev. Mr. Cook to tell them that he had secured an increase of the pay of the police and the judges. "We paid out last year to Indian employes $642,000" he said. "If I had $600 to pay an Indian for his service l think that it is better to split it in half and pay two Indians, each receiving half of the amount mentioned." American Horse, the second chief of the Ogallalas from Pine Ridge, then harangued his comrades. He complained that they had not spoken plainly enough and advised them to do so, no matter how Harsh the truth might be.
Turning Hawk from Pine Ridge stepped out to address the Commissioner after the censure of American Horse. He spoke of the 1,700 men who left Rosebud for the war path, the leaders of whom were Two Strike, High Hawk, both in this city, Crow Dog. Turning Bull, Pine Bird, Short Bull, No Flesh and others. Turning Hawk understood they were running away merely through fear of the soldiers. The peacemakers who had brought them back were Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses, Little Wound, John Grass, Fast Thunder, Fire Lightning, Spotted Horse and others of the delegation here, including the speaker. He said that he believed that Red Cloud was prevented from carrying out his good intentions by the fact that he was almost totally blind. Jack Fed Cloud, his son, joined the peace party.
Spotted Elk said that 222 lodges had been counted by him in the Bad Lands, which hardly numbered 1,000 people, the largest number that was ever in the Bad Lands. Major Swords said that Big Foot's band, which had been running away from Cheyenne Hiver, did not have over 330 people, with a great number of old women and children. Tuning Hawk then related the story of the Wounded Knee fight. He told the story that all others have - that an irrepressible Indian fired his gun und killed an officer. Spotted Elk interrupted, saying that he had witnessed the shooting. As soon as the shot was fired, he continued, the Indians drew their knives, disregarding the cries of the cooler heads, and the soldiers at once commenced firing. He said that the Indians had retreated up a ravine, but the soldiers followed them up on the sides, shooting them down on every hand.
Commissioner Morgan asked whether the Indian women had taken part in the fight with knives, which had been given as an excuse for the shooting of the squaws. The Indians thought that the soldiers must have been very blind, if they couldn't have told the difference between the men and women, as they had said. The women had lied through an open field, in an entirely different direction from the men.
American Horse explained that the people who had been standing around the young man who fired the gun were immediately killed, and then the Hotchkiss and other guns were directed towards the women, who had a flag of truce over them. Commissioner Morgan asked if this was certainly true. American Horse replied that it was, saying that a woman with a babe at her breast was killed while standing beside the flag of truce. Many women as they fled with their babes on their backs were killed.
Commissioner Morgan reminded them that these were serious charges to make against the United States Army, but the Indians replied that they were saying what was absolutely true.
White Bird suggested that Spotted Horse, who was present at the fight, given a chance to speak. "Much had been said about the story that the Seventh Cavalry had gone to the fight without any animosity," said Mr. Cook, "and with no desire to avenge Custer's fight. I know that this is untrue from my own experience. An officer said to me with much savage pleasure, 'Now we have avenged Custer's death;' but a scout standing nearby said that Custer's men had arms to fight with, but the Indians at Wounded Knee were almost entirely without arms, and it was a cold-blooded massacre." Mr. Cook made a deep Impression by the relation of several events in connection with the fight, and repeated the charges that had been made.
He Dog was asked if he know who shot Lieutenant Casey, and he said that Peter Reichard said that he saw an Ogallala young man who had just come from an Eastern school kill Lieutenant Casey. This young man was from Rosebud, and was named Many or Plenty Horses. He had been home from Carlisle two years. The chief stated that everybody knew that this young man was the murderer.
Clarence Three-Stars acted as interpreter for Spotted Horse, from Pine Ridge. He asked for a new school at his camp, Medicine Root. Big Road followed him and said that he had been a peacemaker, hut fled from the agency when they were fired on. He admitted that he was a prominent ghost dancer. He said that in the ghost dance they all joined hands and prayed to God for something to eat. They even took their finger rings that they might have on arms, and shutting their eyes they danced till they were exhausted and fell over. It was like a dream. He thought that the white people's religion was the same as their own, and they were much surprised when they found that the white people considered it wrong. White Bird spoke next.
Commissioner Morgan then asked American Horse if the Sioux Indians were well armed, and he replied in the negative. They had Winchester rifles, shotguns and revolvers. "Those, who have a pass," he said, "could buy these guns at stores', some from grangers, and some from farmers within the Indian territory. We still have deer, prairie chickens and other game to shoot. We will readily give up what guns we have. The people who are closing in on us are a bad lot. Here they are good, but when they are away out there they want a little blood. My people would feel unsafe and would suffer if we were unarmed. I never heard of a council to consider the advisability of going on the warpath. I don't think there is any danger of an outbreak in the spring, when the grass comes." American Horse then said that he had neglected his own interests for the Government and his people, and said he wanted to resign the chieftainship and go into the quieter path of life.
This ended the council, Commissioner Morgan making a farewell address. The delegation will leave Friday morning and be shown the Postmaster-General' s store in Philadelphia, and then be taken to Carlisle Saturday. The Indians will be taken to see the President to-morrow. (The Critic, Washington D.C., February 11, 1891, page 1)
“The announcement that the Indians are to be rounded up at Fort Sheridan will cause considerable surprise, as it had been generally believed that they would be taken on to Washington to have a pow-wow with the Great Father. The Indians themselves, without doubt, share this belief, otherwise it would have been no easy matter to prevail on them to leave Pine Ridge Agency and come East. The purpose of the War Department in the matter is not fully understood.
“It is said that it is the intention of Gen. Miles to enlist the Indians in the regular army, subject them to the same discipline as other recruits so as to have them ready for service against hostile Indians in Indian wars which may break out in the future.”
On January 28th, the Chicago Tribune reported that the “delegation of Indian chiefs” had arrived in Chicago.
“On the train were forty-four Indians, and of these thirty are to be quartered at Fort Sheridan. Those who are to be left so close to Chicago are all Brules, headed by Kicking Bear and Short Bull. When the train reached the Northwestern Depot at 8:45 last night there was a crowd of sight-seers waiting to catch a glimpse of the Indians. . . Capt. McKibben and Lieut. Maxwell of Fort Sheridan were at the depot with a detail of four non-commissioned officers and six privates to guard the Brules on their way to their new home.”
The remaining fourteen continued on to Washington, D. C. The illustration above, showing the chiefs in the railroad car after pulling into the station, was drawn the Chicago Tribune’s chief cartoonist, Harold R. Heaton.
Newspaper reports indicated that all remained peaceful at the Fort other than the large number of curious visitors. On January 29th, the Chicago Tribune reported that:
“Every village boy in Fort Sheridan and about two hundred from Highland Park formed a cordon around the tepees of the Indians, and the sentinel had more trouble in keeping the white man out than he had in keeping the red man in. The truth of the matter is that the Indians are in no sense prisoners. Every member of the guard that was mounted at Fort Sheridan yesterday morning had strict orders to allow the Indians to do as they choose. . . The reds, in short, are to have every liberty, provided they go it alone.”