Very, very belatedly, Lone Bull, named as one of the "prime leaders" of the Ghost Dancers, was almost certainly the man of the same name who participated on Cody's 1891-92 season, as he was one of the 23 hostages. Short Bull mentions him riding a grey horse which he had stolen, while they were holed up in the Stronghold.
The Starita book you mention sounds very interesting. I've ordered a second-hand copy - very cheaply!!! - from Amazon. I can't wait for it to arrive.
Thanks to you Dietmar. The Wild West Show come to Bologna a second time in 1906, but so far I have not find photographs of that year. Maybe I'll be lucky later.
Happy New Year to you and all American Tribes.
Your photo interests me greatly, although, as Dietmar correctly says, this was a different set of Indians and if any of the Ghost Dance hostages were there, they were not there in that capacity.
Napoli was another Italian venue that year. I have solid grounds for believing that Vesuvio, which was reported to have made a big impression on the Indians, was a major inspiration for the Ghost Dance movement. The Indians picked up on the fact that even the most rock-solid of empires (Roman, in the case of the 79 AD eruption which they heard all about) could be swept away by the wrath of God.
BTW, I strongly contest Neihardt's claim that Black Elk was in Napoli with Mexican Joe, c. 1888.
Mmmmm ----- John Lone Bull was an Oglala. The Lone Bull here depicted is id'd as a Brule. These id's can be dodgy, but have to be taken seriously to begin with.
There was an Oglala called Lone Bull who was listed among the "prime leaders" of the Oglala Ghost Dancers by Pine Ridge Agent Royer in November, 1890, men whom Royer recommended be arrested and confined off reservation.
Check Joe Starita, THE DULL KNIFES OF PINE RIDGE: A LAKOTA ODYSSEY (New York, 1995), pages 227-229,for an interesting sidelight on Lone Bull's experience after the Cody tour. Maybe tomfc can help with the background to this story?
What the Starita story does say is that Lone Bull only returned to Pine Ridge in 1898 after being kidnapped and exhibited "back East" as a kind of freak show. It then goes on to say he was allotted near Allen, SD, on the Pine Ridge Reservation. This does tighten the id with John Lone Bull, the informant of Donald Collier in 1939.
A puzzling one .......
BTW, a confession. In my first book, The Diamond's Ace - Scotland and the Native Americans (2001), I made the appalling error of conflating Lone Bull with One Bull, nephew of Sitting Bull. I have long since corrected this delusion.
Well, it was a long time ago and I was just starting out...