Dear Colleagues. Have the following proposition. Kingsley Bray presents data on the structure of the Oglala units, indicating the leaders. Maybe someone can share information about subgroups Hunkpapa indicating leading tiwahe? Since 1800. Then we add on 10-15-20 years. And highlight the main leaders and leading families in each period.
I agree with Kingsley that you should begin with a later period when there is more detail and work your way backwards. I recommend starting with the 1880-85 time frame when we have the best documentation for the Hunkpapa through census records, annuity rolls and issue lists.
At Standing Rock, the following Hunkpapa were recognized by the Indian agent as leader of a band:
Thunder Hawk Bears Rib Running Antelope Iron Horn Belly Fat Long Soldier Medicine Man White Eye Bad Hand Black Bird Red Horse Red Lance Stack Bird High Eagle Bear Face Cross Bear Crow King Scattering Bear Charging Thunder Gall Bear's Hat Grey Eagle Black Moon Rain in the Face Sitting Bull
Then can try to start from 1849 or 1855? All more or less large movements are completed. And 1840 was internal immigration from Sihasapa and Sans Arc. The truth was then reverse the process, which ended in 1855. Therefore, taking as a basis in 1849 or 1855 we get a relatively stable basic structure and can continue it as a back to 1800 and forward to 1890
By the time of the establishment of Standing Rock Agency in the aftermath of the Treaty of 1868 the sacred hoop of the Hunkpapa tribe comprised as many as nine organized camps.
An early missionary obtained a complete list and the order assigned to the camps within the Hunkpapa tribal circle. Beginning with the position at the south side of the camp entrance, and continuing clockwise around the circle to the north side, the camps were ordered as follows: 1. Canka Ohan, Sore-Backs (of horses). Principal tiwahe: Running Antelope, Cross Bear. 2. Ce Ohba, Droopy thingy. Principal tiwahe: Little Bear, Long Soldier, Bear Ribs I and II, Bear Face, Iron Horn, Rain in the Face. 3. Tinazipe Sica, Bad Bows. Principal tiwahe: Sitting Bull, Four Horns, Black Moon. 4. Talonapin, Raw Meat Necklace. Principal tiwahe: Big Prairie Chicken, Charging Thunder, Spotted Horn Bull, Crow King, Scattering Bear, Long Dog, Iron Dog, Gall. 5. Kiglaska, Tied in the Middle. Principal tiwahe: (possibly) No Neck, Catch the Bear. 6. Ceknake Okisela, Half Breechcloth. Principal tiwahe: Little Prairie Chicken. 7. Siksicela, Bad Ones. Principal tiwahe: not known. 8. Wakan, Sacred. Principal tiwahe: Long Horn. 9. Hunska Canto-Juha, Legging Tobacco Pouch. Principal tiwahe: not known.
According to the Standing Rock informants of historian Stanley Vestal, whose biography of Sitting Bull and other writings are major contributions to Sioux history, the nine camps were grouped into two major tribal sub-divisions. These two maximal bands were called: (a) Icira, which Vestal’s informants translated as the “Band that separated & went together again.” (b) Canka Ohan, or Sore-Backs (of horses).
The Icira comprised bands 3-7 in the list above. Vestal sought detailed information on this group because it included Sitting Bull and his relatives. On Sitting Bull’s band affiliation he learned that it was “called the Bad Bows Band. Sometimes called Icira because Sitting Bull was chief of Icira & they joined [the] Bad Bows Band – Sitting Bull became chief”. Vestal devoted less inquiry to the second group, but the Sore-Backs undoubtedly comprised bands 1, 2, and possibly 8 and 9 in the list above.
We know that bands 1 and 2 were connected because two of the leading tiwahe were led by men who called each other ‘brother’ – Bear Ribs I and Running Antelope. Vestal’s observations are important because the two big divisions seem to have developed distinct political positions in relation to the Americans. The Icira division, which probably ranged further west, was opposed to American expansion and would take a lead in the Great Sioux War of 1876-77. The Sore-Backs division, whose hunting grounds were further east along the Missouri River, took a more peaceful attitude and its bands first settled at Standing Rock Agency.
Hello. There was such a question. Hunkpapa has Tiyoshpaya Canka Ohan, Sore-Backs (of horses). How is it connected with the same name of Ogla's tyloshpaye, which was formed by the sons of the Black Stone? Is there a connection through the Black Stone or his parents from Hunkpapa?