I believe these are the S. Cheyenne delegates to the 1875 "International Council" of the various Indian nations of the Indian Territory, held in Muskogee. I am not sure who this photographer was, but this was the occasion during which Jack Hillers took his various images of S Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Pawnees sitting on that rock outcrop. I have some other views of the Cheyenne delegation, as well as the Comanches Tabananaka and Cheevers, and their wives.
This Muskogee council was an outgrowth of the 1830s councils between the "5 Civilized Tribes" and the others of IT/OT. In 1834, after the Dragoon Expedition, the Comanche captive known as The Little Spaniard, aka Jesus Sanchez, returned to Fort Gibson with them, where he met in council with the Creeks and others, and received a "White Feather" of peace. There are a few other mentions of these councils, which I am (slowly) gathering into a larger article.
Last Edit: Jun 23, 2013 17:21:16 GMT -5 by tkavanagh
Thanks. My initial thought was that they were Southern Cheyenne or Arapaho, but looking through Nye's Plain Indian Raiders, I wondered if the two men in the centre were Tabananaka and Esarosa/White Wolf - the latter being the man in the waistcoat.
Here´s a small sample. I´m sure I have a good scan somewhere... I´ll post it later on...
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Again, here´s the 1875 Hillers group photo. I splitted the image to make it as large as possible.
I haven´t identified all men, but sitting in the front row are the Cheyenne delegates White Shield, Little Bear, Little Chief, (interpreter) Phil McCusker, Starving Elk, Feathered Wolf and Plenty Horses.
in the front row (right to the bearded man) are some Arapaho delegates, among them Big Mouth, Yellow Bear and Friday.
No, I don't know who the Taivo w/ Cheevers and Tabenanaka is (yet). I don't think it's the same guy w/ the Cheyennes: this guy is youngish, the other is older. Also this guy has a Sharps carbine (cocked), the other has a long gun of some kind.
Also: The timing of this is interesting, and thereby somewhat puzzling. If this is indeed May 1875, the Kwahadas with Quanah and Isatai (Quenatosavit) were still on their leisurely way in to Fort Sill. More interestingly, the detainees to Fort Marion had only just been selected. In this regard, I had said, "It is sometimes said [citation?] that when asked to point out the those who were [to go], Cheevers and other Comanche leaders sent only small-time raiders, while protecting the important men" (The Comanches:453). Did Cheevers make that selection at the same time his wives were packing for the trip to Muskogee?
(Also: the assortment of guns the Comanches carry is interesting: a Henry, a Remington Rolling Block, and a Sharps: three different types of ammunition.)
Last Edit: Jun 25, 2013 5:48:41 GMT -5 by tkavanagh
New information: I found the folder with my notes on these pictures. I was wrong and right at the same time.
1) I knew I had seen the above stereo before. It was in my files! I have a photocopy of a print of it from the American Antiquarian Society over in Worchester, MA [about 40 miles away. If I were not about to leave on an extended trip to the West, I would go over to check my notes again.]
Its caption: “Comanche, Wichita, Indians who were part of delegation from the wild tribes, who came to the Christian Creek Indians, Indian Territory, Sept 187[x*] 200 miles for good teachers to tell the, about the Great Spirit and others to show them how to make farms and houses.”
* One point for me to check is this date: my original notes say ‘1870’, but at some later time, I underlined the 0 and added ‘’. [Interesting that Wichitas would be asking for help in learning how to farm!]
2) I have a photocopy of a print [from where, dammit!!] from the same time as the pic of Tab and Cheevers that I posted, captioned ‘U.S. Interpreter & Ambulance, Comanche chief Cheevers & ---- Indian [---] visiting Creeks at Okmulgee, Sept 1875.”
3) The Wanamaker Collection at the Mathers Museum, Indiana University, has a print of Cheevers with the torn caption, “Cheevers, Comanche Indian Chief, ...who came 200 miles for good teachers for his people, and ... for his children ...”
4) There are two images which may be of Cheyennes at the Grand Council. One (I think) is in Fowler’s Hillers book [Fig # ?]; on a related photocopy (not very good) from a print in the Handbook files (from where??) is the comment: “These men and women do not appear among the other Cheyenne portraits taken by Hillers taken the 1875 Grand Council. The hair on three of the women *not* worn Cheyenne style. The men are more likely Kiowa or Comanche. However, the wife of the interpreter, seated at left is Cheyenne. PJP+ 10-19-88.”
PJP+ is, of course, Fr. Peter J. Powell. While his reasoning on the women’s hair may be correct, he did not notice the Cheyenne cradle in the background. And I won’t go by his knowledge of non-Cheyenne peoples either. The men are not Comanche, and I don’t think Kiowa.
Conclusions: From point 1: Despite the caption, I don’t think there are any Comanches in this picture. But the similarity of captions on 1,2,3 suggest that yes, Comanches, and some others (Wichitas?), went to Okmulgee, but it was in September, 1875, not in May for the Grands Council.
Point 4 suggests that some Cheyennes did go to the Council, and were photographed in camp, but not by Hillers.
I don´t have any evidence for the identity of the men, but to me the man standing in the middle (with hat) looks a lot like Tawakoni Jim, a Wichita leader. Did he participate in the councils at Muskogee?
Last Edit: Aug 14, 2013 10:34:51 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Well, according to an 1870 letter from Central Superintendent Enoch Hoag to Wichita Agent Jonathan Richards, "Under the Treaty (July 19/66) between the Wichitas and Cherokee Nation provision is made for an annual “General Council” consisting of delegates elected by each nation or tribe loyally residing within the “Indian territory.” [OHS-KA roll 48 "Councils"]. Unfortunately I can't find therein any mention of any Wichita delegates actually going, and only fleeting references to any of the KCA or C&A (a tantalizing mention that Paruacoom of the Quahadas was to be invited, bug of course, he never went.)