Yes, it's true, Jack Red Cloud was one of the leaders in the Ghost Dance Camp at White Clay Creek in the summer / fall of 1890. However, according to Hyde in "A Sioux Cronicle" (and in other sources), he had in early December 1890 changed sides. At the request of General Brooke, around 3 December, he led Father John Jutz to the Ghost Dancer camp at the Stronghold. On December 6th direct talks took place between Two Strike, Little Wound, Big Road and General Brooke. According to Hyde, newspapers referred to Young Red Cloud at the time: "Jack Red Cloud, the highly respected son of the great chief." I therefore do not consider it impossible that Jack was among the Scouts in January 1891.
During my occupation with the Chiricahua Apaches and their fate as a prisoners of war, I repeatedly came across the name "George Wratten". Here is what I compiled about this interesting person.
Wratten, George Medhurst
1865 - 1912
George Medhurst Wratten Junior was a well trusted interpreter, supporter and supervisor of the Chiricahua Apaches. He accompanied them into exile/captivity to Florida, Alabama and Oklahoma, caring very much about their welfare for over 20 years.
His parents were of English descent; his father George Senior - a Lawyer - moved his family from Sonoma (California) to Arizona in 1879. There are different versions of the further development. One says that George Senior worked for the San Carlos Agency and his intelligent son spent his teenage years among Apaches and so learning their dialects fluently. In addition to the Apache dialects Wratten Junior learned Spanish and won – most important – the respect and friendship of not a few Apaches. The later known Apache scouts Ahnandia and Rogers Toclanni, a brother-in-law of Geronimo, called George Junior “brother”.
Another version says that 14 year old George became restless in his new home and obtained permission to live with his older sister in nearby Globe (Arizona). Later that year young Wratten went from Globe to San Carlos Reservation where he arrived late 1879. It took him several days to arrive there riding a broken-down burro and possessing nothing more than a bridle, a rope, and the clothes on his back. He worked at various jobs in the trading post, as a mule packer and from 1881 as a scout and interpreter.
On April 15, 1955, Jason Betzinez stated in an interview with George Wratten’s son Albert:
“I have known George Wratten ever since he was 16 years old. He ran away from his home in Florence, Arizona, and came to San Carlos with a party of people who built a general store and young Wratten was one of the clerks in the store, where he was in daily contact with the Indians constantly, and soon learned their language. The Apache Indian language is the hardest to learn but young Wratten exceptionally learned and understood the language in such a short time and as far as we know there isn’t another white man who can speak the Apache language as freely as George M. Wratten.”
In 1886 Wratten was selected by Lt. Charles B. Gatewood to be a part of the expedition that went into Mexico to find Geronimo and his band. He was present during Gatewood’s conference with Geronimo (September 4, 1886) and assisted Gatewood and Captain Henry Lawton in escorting the Apaches back across the border to Skeleton Canyon.
When Geronimo’s renegades were taken to Fort Bowie, Wratten went with them. He was also on the Train to Florida and moved with them from Fort Pickens (Florida) to Mount Vernon Barracks (Alabama) and to Fort Sill (Oklahoma). On their way to Florida the train was stopped at San Antonio, where the band lived from September 19 to October 22. On October 25 the Geronimo group reached Pensacola, where the men were separated from the women and children. The women and children were sent to Fort Marion, the 15 men – and Wratten - were taken to Fort Pickens. George Wratten would not leave his friends and was in constant contact with these people up until the point of his death in 1912. In April 1887 the men were reunited with their families.
In May 1888 the Fort Pickens prisoners joined the remaining Chiricahuas at Mount Vernon Barracks in Alabama. In the same year Wratten married 17 years old Nah-goy-yah-kizn (aka Annie, abt. 1871 – 1913), a young Apache woman with Chokonen and Chihenne roots. George and Annie had two daughters, Amy (1890 - 1956) and Blossom (1894 – 1981). About 1894 Wratten and Annie divorced and in 1899 he would marry Julia Elizabeth Cannon from Mount Vernon. George and Julia had three sons and two daughters. And Annie? She married Talbot Gooday. George and Annie’s daughter Amy married Richard Imach and would become the mother of the famous Fort Sill Apache Tribe chairperson, Mildred Imach Cleghorn (1910 – 1997).
In 1894 the trust between Wratten and Geronimo got cracks. Geronimo unsuccessful appealed to the Fort Sill commander to remove Wratten as interpreter and Culture mediator. It is said that Geronimo hoped to succeed Wratten by a relative who was sent back from Carlisle Indian School.
Beginning October 1894 the whole Chiricahua group was moved from Mount Vernon to Fort Sill in Oklahoma. Under George Wratten’s supervision the Apaches started building Houses, which were clustered in small groups. Each little hamlet was led by a chief. Normally the former rancheria leaders: Naiche , Geronimo, Perico, Chatto etc.
After the turn of the century Wratten and Geronimo were reunited for a big event. On March 4, 1905 the new President Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated. Geronimo was invited to take part in the Inaugural Parade and Wratten accompanied the chief to Washington. The day after the parade both were interviewed at their Hotel. For the first and only time Wratten commented his relationship to Geronimo and Indians at large.
Wratten said: ”The best way to get along with an Indian is to make him a pal … what civilization or education he [Geronimo] has, he owes to me. He will print his name for you if you ask him. He is very fond of doing that”. Hearing that Geronimo wrote his name on a card and offered it to the journalist, obviously he understood more English than he wanted to admit.
In February 1908 George Wratten resigned his position and went with his wife Julia “Bessie” Cannon back to Mount Vernon. Not successful with his enterprises, he returned to Fort Sill after two years. At that time he was in bad health. This condition deteriorated rapidly, when the doctors diagnosed tuberculosis. Wratten died on June 23, 1912. He was buried at Fort Sill (Oklahoma).
Here is a pic of the Henry Model 1860 .44 caliber rifle which was presented to Sitting Bull the Minor (Sitting Bull the Good, Oglala Lakota, 1841-1876) on June 6, 1875 by President Ulysses S. Grant. Collected by General Nelson A. Miles (1839-1925, U.S. Army, then a colonel) following Sitting Bull's death at the hands of the Crows on December 16, 1876 on the Tongue River in Montana.
On June 06, 1921 the “Great Falls Tribune” reported “the recent death” of Iron Lightning, a Sub-chief of Sitting Bull”. He died in his home near Thunder Butte station (Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation). The newspaper said “he was the last Indian living with two wives”.
I suppose that there was a close relation between Iron Lighntning (Wakangli Maza or Wakinyan Maza / abt 1845 – 1921) and Hump (Etokeah , 1850 – 1908).
I scribbled down the following (I have to look for sources): “On the way to Montana for a visit, Hump camped with Iron Lightning on the Moreau River”.
Iron Lightning was a leader of the Iron Lightning – Mnikowozu band. For a while Iron Lightning lived at Red Elm (in 1910 the end of a railroad line).
On Cheyenne Indian Reservation Hump settled in 3 places : east of Bridger, at Iron Lightning and near Cherry Creek.
Hump went to Canada (stayed from 1877 to 1882?), and his band returned to the United States, the last of all the bands to return.
Dietmar you wrote “At one time, however, it is said that he [Iron Lightning] went with others [Hump?] to Canada, taking his family with him”.
Maybe there is the connection. Maybe friends from Standing Rock or CRST can shed some light on this matter.
It is funny, the People at the Blanton Museum identified the (clearly) native tripod as a Camera tripod.
The Studies of Indian Chiefs is interesting. BTW: There are 3 men an one woman. I wonder if the "chief" Margo is maybe Marie Bordeaux. Bierstadt (a member of the Frederic Lander Expedition) was in Laramie about June 1859. As far as I know lived James Bordeaux with his wife Marie from about 1841 at the later Fort Laramie.
I know we discussed it before, but it would be very interesting to find more of the Bierstadt photographs.
Oh, I just saw what Kingsley wrote about the woman :"The wife of Antoine Reynal was (according to Francis Parkman) called Margot." So, maybe we have her already identified.
Some years ago I had the Chance to see several works of the outstanding Navajo Artist Emmi Whitehorse in Germany.
Whitehorse states about her abstract paintings: "As an artist I have intentionally avoided politically oriented subject matter and angst-ridden or physical wrestling with the act of painting itself. To make art, the act of making art must stay true to a harmonious balance of beauty, nature, humanity and the whole universe. This is in accordance with Navajo philosophy. I have chosen to focus on nature, on landscape. My paintings tell the story of knowing land over time - of being completely, micro-cosmically within a place."
Growing up outside Chaco Canyon, which straddles the Continental Divide in New Mexico, Whitehorse was exposed at an early age to the stunning beauty and desolation of the Southwest. Her family was nomadic, living inside in winter and outside in the warmer seasons without the benefit of electricity or other modern conveniences.
Whitehorse learned from her grandmother, a traditional Navajo weaver, who taught her that art is a mental journey with a calming purpose. “My grandmother wove a lot of contemporary images,” Whitehorse remembers. “From watching her, I learned to see space. I got a sense from her about how to get three dimensionality from a flat surface, which she achieved with her blankets.”
Using a private language of symbols and memories, Whitehorse makes ‘personal diaries’ of her life as an artist and of her native heritage.
Diane, a big thank you for this recommendation. A very interesting book with many details. That many Germans and Swiss fought in the seventh cavalry is well known. But who these men were and where they came from is new. At least for me. Greetings from Germany, Gregor
Curriculum Materials Resource Unit(Project IH-004), Oglala Sioux Culture Center, Red Cloud Indian School, In consultation with: Jake Little Thunder, Wanblee, South Dakota (I have a copy). Published in July 1972
This is said about the above circle:
The Kiyuksas disliked Red Cloud's leadership and didnot wish to live at the Agency at all. They moved east-ward until they settled on the Yellow Medicine Root Creek. The Payabayas under Young Man Afraid of His Horse moved north along the White Clay Creek. The Oyukpe, under Red Do g, moved to Wounded Knee Creek. ............... When these Headmen led their tiospayes away fram the Agency, the question of rations became important. ............... Each week the people would leave their cabins to rideinto Pine Ridge, called Owakpmmni (Place Where They Give Away),because they received their rations there.There were noweight men recognized as Head Chiefs for their bands.LittleWound, Red Cloud, /bung Man Afraid of His Horses, Red Dog,White Bird, Vo Flesh, High Bear, and Red Shirt. Therefore,the rations mere divided into eight piles on the ground. Each Head Chief would then take his pile of rations and distributeit equally among the camps in his band.
And this is said about the communities:
Potato Creek The original families at Potato Creek were Plenty Bears, Hollow Heads, and Hunting Horses.BrokenRo Pe. Afraid of Nothing, Standing Soldier, White Horse,Red Elk, White Deer Man Above, Twiss, Shot With Arrows,Marshall, Old Horse, Bull Man, Crazy D3g, Bush, BearRunner, Horn Cloud, and many others lived here. Their leader was Turning Hawk, who was closely alliedwith lb Flesh of the Wazazas.In this community, peopledid alot to help each other for the good of the community.
No Flesh Creek Community- This area was settled originally by the leader No Flesh whose followers were Wazazas. They were closely related and allied with the Brules.