Post by kingsleybray on Apr 5, 2016 4:58:29 GMT -5
there are interesting things I'm learning from Oglala sources including a topic I'm very interested in, the diplomacy leading up to the 1851 Horse Creek treaty.
I agree with you, it's a mystery why no Oglalas were included in the official signatory list. What I can tell you from the new information is that the Oglala chiefs' council, nacha omnichiye, appointed four men as wakichunze (Deciders), to co-ordinate their diplomacy with the USA in the runup to the treaty council. These men were:
Smoke (Bad Face band) Shell Man (Payabya band) Black Hawk (Spleen band) Brave Bear (Bad Face band)
You will note from the newspaper coverage cited above that Smoke (misprinted or misheard as "Snake"), Brave Bear, and Black Hawk all made speeches. Shell Man was the Oglala delegate to Washington after the treaty council.
The Sicangu (Brule) appointed new Shirt Wearers to co-ordinate their negotiations, but the Oglalas did not feel that necessary. The traditions (which are part of an unpublished winter count) seem to view at least Shell Man as an actual signatory. I will follow up on that, but I might propose that the Oglala Deciders were empowered to 'touch the pen' but that the commissioners did not require so many signatures?
Kingsley, I was indeed thinking along the same lines: who needs any more signatures when you already have the "head chief of all Lakotas" in Conquering Bear and a few of his close associates? This, btw, would also apply to the Miniconjous who were there (eg. Red Fish), and did not sign the treaty either.
Thanks for the additional info. Can you share which winter count you are referring to?
Post by kingsleybray on Aug 26, 2016 13:26:46 GMT -5
As many of you will know, Congress refused to ratify the Treaty of 1851 unless the annuity term was reduced from fifty years to ten (with an option to extend to fifteen). Consequently in 1853-54 Indian agents were charged with securing agreements to the reduced term. I recently came across a document which listed the signatures of six Cheyenne and seven Arapaho leaders. The agreement was secured by agent Thomas Fitzpatrick (who went on to Ft Laramie to obtain agreement from the Oglala and Brule Lakotas). They were secured at Ft St. Vrain on the South Platte river on August 31st, 1853. They were witnessed by B. Gratz Brown (secretary or clerk to Fitzpatrick), Wm W. Bent (the trader, and probably the Cheyenne interpreter), John Poisal (Arapaho interpreter), George M. Alexander, Auguste Lucien (Lakota interpreter?), and George Collier.
Phonetic versions of the native names are included, but I have listed here only the translations and some of my remarks in [brackets]. 1851 indicates signatories of original treaty.
Cheyennes: The man that walks [1851: Medicine Arrow, keeper of Sacred Arrows, Heviqsnipahis band] White Antelope [1851:Ridge Men band] White Cow  Old Bark [1851: Wutapiu band] Little Chief [Washington DC delegate after 1851 treaty - died c. 1858] Black Leg [or Black Shin, Suhtaio band]
Arapahoes: The Big Man  Little Owl  The Birds Head Yellow Bear Dirty Face The Bull Storm [Washington delegate]