Post by kingsleybray on Nov 16, 2009 14:18:53 GMT -5
High Wolf, Shunkmanitu Wankatuya, born ca. 1824, was a prominent Oglala headman in the late 1860s and 1870s. I have heard that he was half Cheyenne. George Hyde identifies him with the Oyuhpe band (Red Cloud's Folk, p. 174), though I have not come across a contemporary statement that confirms that.
According to Thomas Mails' biography of the 20th century holy man Frank Fools Crow, High Wolf was a Sun Dance priest in pre-reservation times. He enters the documentary record in 1868 when he was Oglala signatory no. 14 to the Treaty of Ft Laramie, signed on May 25. He spent the summer with Man Afraid of His Horse's village which was moving along the South Cheyenne and upper Powder rivers. Later in the summer however it is noted that he led one or more war parties against the Americans, an early example of disenchantment with the new treaty. The document refers to him as High Wolf or The Lame Warrior. He evidently had sustained a leg wound at some point, hence the nickname, which recurs again in the Red Cloud Census pictographs drawn ca. 1882 and published by Garrick Mallery in his Bureau of American Ethnology reports - there High Wolf is referred to as Sits Like a Woman.
High Wolf moved to Red Cloud Agency soon after it was established in 1871 or 1872, travelling to Washington in May-June 1872 - whence the classic Alexander Gardner image above. After the trip (though not before) agent Daniels refers to High Wolf as a chief. In 1873-74 his sub-band was rationed at Red Cloud Agency as part of the larger Payabya band (Old Man Afraid of His Horse's band). In the Pine Ridge reservation census for 1890 he is listed as belonging to the Peshla or Bald Head band, settled in the Porcupine District.
It's a truly beautiful image, Naiches, and thanks for the incredibly detailed blowup. Here's a question for the photo experts. Is this hair-fringed shirt the same as that worn by Little Big Man on the 1877 delegation?
Coincidentally or not, an 1872 report of Little Big Man paying a visit to Red Cloud Agency no. 1, mentions that he was staying with High Wolf. And in the 1890 census High Wolf's family includes a 15-year old son named Chasing Bear, Mato Wakuwa. That is of course Little Big Man's formal name. I wonder if there was a family connection?
I am confident in saying that the hide shirt worn by High Wolf in 1872, and the hide shirt worn by Little Big Man in 1877, is the same hide shirt. The only difference being that by 1877, the shirt has the additions of prairie chicken feathers tied on the left shoulder and an ermine skin tied on the right shoulder.
Tall Wolf or High Wolf – Oglala – 1872
Little Big Man – Oglala – 1877
"Be good, be kind, help each other." "Respect the ground, respect the drum, respect each other." --Abe Conklin - Ponca/Osage, (1926-1995)