I found a new list of the 1875 Sioux delegation in the REPORTS OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, which are online now.
INDIANS VISIT WASHINGTON 1875
The next step taken by the Government was in April, 1874, by securing a deputation of leading Indians to visit Washington for the purpose of making a treaty. The Indians selected for this purpose were chosen with regard to their representative capacity and influential character. The delegation was in charge of Dr. J. J. Seville, agent at Red Cloud Agency: Mai. E. A. Howard, agent at Spotted Tail or Brule Agency: and Maj. H. W. Bingham, at Cheyenne Agency; with Louis Bordeaux and William Garnett as interpreters. The names of the Indian*; follow :
Oglalas — Red Cloud, Little Mound. Man-Afraid-Of-His-Horses, Conquer- ing Rear, American Horse, Sitting Rull (not the chief of the Custer battle), Shoulder, Tall Lance, Fast Thunder, Hole-In-The-Dav. Yellow Jacket. Black Bear. Iron Horse Face, Pawnee Killer, Bad Wound and his wife. Ba-pink-leu-tah.
Brules — Spotted Tail. Swift Bear, Crow Dog. Crazy. Tn-The-Lodge. King Thunder, Cut Nose, White Horse, Under-The-Cloud. Hisrh Eagle and Fast Thunder represented the Minneconieaux or Rippling Water band.
Chevenne Agency — Lone Horn, Long Mandan, Bull Eagle, Red Skirt, Charger, White Swan, Spotted Elk, Rattling Rib, and Duck.
Post by calvinspottedelk on Mar 5, 2012 22:26:28 GMT -5
hmmm Are we sure this is 1875?
I have a copy of an image from the Minnesota Historical Society that Dietmar located and they (Lone Horn and Spotted Elk) aren't carrying as much weight on their bodies...
It makes me think one of these photographs must have been a different delegation year.
I have copies of newspaper articles that follow their journey in May of 1875. The photo the is at the Minnesota Historical society matches the people who are traveling together in the newspaper articles almost exactly.
Even with the extra weight on, I can see the resemblance between Lone Horn in each of the photos. It is very clearly his nose. And Spotted Elk although his eyes are closed had a slightly lazy eye that is noticeable in many of his photos. This particular photograph actually resembles Calvin Spotted Elk a great deal. They could be twins! This photograph is also the photograph they have at the cultural preservation office in Eagle Butte.
Thanks for any further information you may be able to provide. We try to find original sources, whenever possible.
I think there is little doubt that the big delegation photograph we discussed about here was taken in 1875. As you said, there are numerous newspaper articles and other soures which can proof it.
The small edit you linked here has the date 1874 in it, but I believe it only says that the discussion who would be send to Washington as delegate was started in 1874. They eventually went east the year later and in May 1875 met President Grant.
Regarding the other photograph with only a few of the delegates from Cheyenne River (Spotted Elk, Lone Horn, etc.): There is a probability that it was taken the same year, but I think it hasn´t been proven exactly. It could also be that it was taken earlier, maybe 1874.
Last Edit: Mar 14, 2012 13:10:40 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Just curious - Does anyone know who the child is that is standing in front of William Garnett, between Ring Thunder and Fast Thunder? I haven't seem him mentioned anywhere in this thread, however, I could have easily missed it.
Also, in the Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs segment that was quoted in this thread (back in 2009!), there were a number of additional names of men who attended the 1875 delegation meeting. Have we come to any conclusions as to whether they actually attended, and if they did, why they were not included in the above photograph?
Last Edit: Jan 13, 2014 0:07:29 GMT -5 by sunparrot: Re-posted photograph without text by accident. New kere!
The jurisdictional gaps on the Cheyenne River reservation fostered a no-man's land for non-Indian troublemakers, a situation that ultimately led to the shooting of William Fielder and the subsequent trial in federal court of seven tribal policemen. Fielder, a white man, had spent his adult life with the Lakota, who called him "Has the Boat." He became an interpreter at Cheyenne River Agency in 1873 and served as official interpreter for an 1875 delegation to Washington, D.C. The Cheyenne River Indian agent appointed him chief of the tribal police in 1878, the year the force was organized. Over the next few years, however, Fielder developed a reputation as a drinker and trouble- maker and was eventually removed from the post.^ On several occasions, agents ordered Indian police to remove him from the reservation for his conduct, but he always returned, claiming his right to live there as the husband of a Lakota woman. In 1887, Agent Charles E. McChesney sought assistance from the United States Indian Sei-vice to remove Fielder permanently from Cheyenne River, but he received little help or encouragement. Acting Commissioner Alexander B. Upshaw refuted Eielder's right to live on the reservation the agent that he "could acquire no rights on the reservation" in that way. UnforUinately, he continued, "the absence of any law providing for the adequate punishment of [petty] offenses" committed by those who lacked property meant that the predicament had no solution. McChesney's only recourse, according to Upshaw, was to evict Eielder "whenever he is found on the reservation."'" This jurisdictional void was a major factor in the incident that cost Fielder his life.
The event precipitating the clash between Fielder and the Indian police occurred in early March 1893, when the United States paid Cheyenne River claimants for nearly one thousand horses that General Alfred Terry had seized during the Sioux War of 1876.^ On the morning of 7 March 1893, William Fielder's wife, Kate Fielder, walked the mile from her home to the agency to claim two hundred dollars for five horses confiscated from her in 1876. That afternoon she gave her husband $105 to pay his debts and buy clothes for his boys, explaining later that she had done so out of fear because he was drunk at the time. Fielder later demanded more money, and she refused, having concealed the remainder in her pillow. He then threatened to kill her and in an ugly rage struck her with an ash stick. Finally, Fielder threw water on his unconscious wife to revive her and made her promise not to tell anyone about the incident."
Later that day, William Fielder visited the agency and asked his wife to return home, which she refused to do because "he had a knife" and would "cut her throat," she said.'" Her husband also went to the office of the agent, who did not have him arrested at tliat time because the "large and powerful man" was "crazed" with drink and could not be handled by the single policeman then on duty. According to Lillibridge, chief of police William Fletcher visited Fielder at lois house twice that afternoon to persuade him to surrender." When Fielder refused, tlireatening Fletcher and his accompanying officers with a wrench and an ax, the agent delayed further action until he could gather a larger force of men.'' Private Joseph Gray Spotted Horse, one of the policemen with Fletcher, later recalled Fielder telling them, "I am not afraid of your six shooters. You have to kill me before you can take me—that is the only way you can take [me].'
According to Lieutenant Joshua Scares the Hawk, at midday Agent Lillibridge advised Captain Moses Straight Head, who had been absent earlier, not to arrest Fielder but to wait one day and see if he would surrender. Instead, Straight Head decided to arrest Fielder immediately, ordering six tribal police to accompany him." At about 5:00 P.M. on 8 March, Captain Straight Head rode ahead, planning to talk to Fielder before the other police arrived. As he approached the house, the officer saw Fielder standing outside with an ax in his hand. He called the white man by bis Lakota name, Wata, and, according to Gray Spotted Horse, "talked good to him all day—but got no answer.'"^ The remaining tribal police approached slowly, attempting to coax Fielder into going to the agency. Private Dennis Buck offered to speak to Fielder in English. Gray Spotted Horse reminded him of the consequences of bis actions for his large family, telling Fielder that he had "bad notions in your head—we do not come up to hurt you.""* Lieutenant Scares the Hawk told Fielder that "he must not have any hard feelings—and have pity or mercy on us— and come along." The lieutenant "asked and begged him four times to come," but Fielder ran inside the cabin, shut the door, and told the seven men to leave.'' Finally, Gray Spotted Horse forced a decision in the stalemate, reminding Straight Head "that this being Indian land—as policemen we can go any where—and dig him out,"
Advising his men to be on their guard, Straight Head kicked in a door panel, opened the door, and retreated a step. Fielder came out after the captain, raising his ax, which lodged in the edge of the low roof. Straight Head then drew his revolver, firing when Fielder came at him with the ax a second time.'"' Tlie captain later explained, "I stepped back when I saw he wanted to strike me—and then I fired—he was about four feet from me." Either the force of the bullet or Fielder's momentum from swinging the ax turned liim toward the other policemen, who stood about six feet away. Lieutenant Scares the Hawk fired a second shot, followed by shots from all but one of tlie other policemen.'" Jacob Little Bull, a tribal freighter, reported that he had driven his wagon to Fielder's home and reached the scene shortly before tlie shooting. He, too, witnessed Fielder come out of the house witli an ax. After the shooting, someone covered Fielder's face, and the policemen placed the body on a wagon and reUimed to the agency.
(from: Justice in Transition: The Murder Trial of Straight Head and Scares the Hawk by Richmond L. Clow
Regarding the boy in the group photo: I can´t imagine the boy was with the delegates and agents and interpreters on such a long trip to the East. I would assume he was more likely a son of one of the officials in Washington... or perhaps of the photographer.
The New York Times offers perhaps the most complete newspaper coverage of the 1875 Sioux delegation trip. Here are some articles of the first days of the delegation in Washington:
Agent Bingham sent a dispatch from Chicago to the Indian Department to-day stating that he would arrive here on Saturday night with a delegation of ten Black Hill Sioux, belonging to the Cheyenne Agency. The Brules and Ogallallahs will arrive next week. (NY Times, May 15., 1875)
ARRIVAL OF AN INDIAN DELEGATION Major H. W. Bingham, Indian Agent at Cheyenne, arrived here to-night, accompanied by nine Sioux Indians and W. M. Fielder as interpreter. The following comprise the delegation: Lone Horn, Head Chief of the Minneconjous; Tall Man Dan, Head Chief of the Two-kettle Band; Swan, Bull Eagle, Spotted Elk, The Duck, Red Skirt, Rattling Rib and Charger. They have been fifteen days on the route to this City. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail, with their delegations, are expected to-morrow night. The delegations come here for the purpose of negotiating with the Government for the sale of the Black Hills. (NY Times, May 16., 1875)
Washington, May 17. THE INDIAN DELEGATION The remaining delegations of Indians arrived here this morning at 7 o´clock, and are quartered at the Tremont House. Agent E. A. Howard is in charge of the Spotted Tail delegation, which is comprised of the following: Louis Bordeaux, interpreter; Spotted Tail, Swift Bear, Looking Horse, Crow Dog, Ring Thunder, and He Eagle. The Red Cloud delegation consists of the following: Dr. J. J. Saville, agent, with his wife; William Garnett, interpreter; Red Cloud, Little Wound, American Horse, Shoulder, Conquering Bear, Fall, Sitting Bull, Tall Lance, Fast Thunder, Black Bear, Iron Horse, Pawnee Killer, Bad Wound and wife. The delegation is also accompanied by the following white men: Todd Randall, Jim Fitzsimmons, Joseph Busher, and Leon F. Pallardy. After their arrival the agents visited the Commissioners of Indian Affairs, but no arrangements have been made as yet for a general interview, although the Indians will be received to-morrow. (NY Times, May 18, 1875)
DISHONEST INTERPRETERS INTERVIEW BETWEEN THE INDIANS AND THE COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS Special Dispatch to the New York Times. WASHINGTON, May 18.- The Indian Delegations in this city have had a brief conference with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and will soon be received by the President. No formal negotiations will be begun for a few days. The Government will have an interpreter of it´s own, who will see that the “talk” of the Indians is correctly translated. It is well known that in some cases interpreters have made false representations in the interest of agents or interested parties. There are a great number of half-breeds and Western white men who are here for the purpose of making mischief unless they can secure their desires in the negotiations. It will be necessary to take unusual precautions that there shall be no misunderstandings in the talks about the Black Hills affair, which is regarded by the Indians as very important, and serious consequences might follow any mistake. ____________ Dispatch to the Associated press.
INTERVIEW AT THE INDIAN BUREAU. This afternoon the Sioux Indians who arrived here Saturday night and Monday morning called the Interior Department to pay their respects to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The Indians are all attired in their feathers, paint, and trinkets. The Cheyenne River Indians, under Agent Bingham, arrived first, and were introduced to the Commissioner in the order of their rank, Lone Horn being first. They were accompanied by William Fielder as interpreter, who has been with the Sioux twenty-two years, having been captured when a child, and whose parents, a brother, and two sisters were killed by Crow Indians. Shortly after Spotted Tail and his delegation appeared, and were introduced in the order of their rank. Spotted Tail wore his new black silk hat, and when introduced said, “How art you?” in pretty good English. They were soon followed by Red Cloud and the Ogallallas, who were each introduced, shaking hands with a loud “How.” Commissioner Smith said: “Some of you have been in Washington before; but that was before I was here, and you are all strangers to me, though I know something about you. I am glad to see you. (“How” by the chiefs.) I suppose you have simply come to shake hands, so that we can look each other in the face and get acquainted. (“How.”) Your Great Father will not be able to see you to-day, but perhaps he will do so to-morrow. I have sent for another interpreter, who will be here this evening, so that we will make no mistake in what we say to one another. I want all the interpreters to keep their ears open, and if they don´t understand, say so on the spot. (“How.”) Now, I don´t want you to find fault with your agent unless you have good cause, and I believe you won´t do so, but if you have anything to say, I want you to speak your whole mind. I hope you will enjoy your stay in Washington, and go back feeling that you have good friends here. (“How.”) After a pause, Red Cloud rose, and advancing to Commissioner Smith and shaking hands, said: “ When I speak I always call on the Great Spirit to hear me, because I tell the truth. The white man tell me lies, and I became so troubled I wanted to come to Washington and see the Great Father himself and talk with him. That is why I have to come to see you.” Here he took his seat. A moment later he rose again and said: “When I spoke of white men telling lies, I did not mean the white men present.” (Laughter, in which some of the chiefs joined.) Spotted Tail advanced smiling, and shaking hands said: “I am glad to see you, and if you can do anything to help me to-day I want you to do it, and we will help each other. I haven´t got much to say to-day. I have brought my own interpreters, and I want you to hear what they have to say. (“How! How!”) I have one friend in Washington; he treated me good when I was here before, and I want to go to him again.” The interpreter explained that he meant the Washington House, where he stopped on a previous visit. Commissioner Smith said these interpreters could come in whenever they chose. As for Spotted Tail´s quarters, he already had made arrangements which he could not very well change. White Swan said he had some business with the Great Father which could not be transacted in one visit. He must see him more than once. The Commissioner said he must remember that the Great Father has the care of so many people that he could give them but little time. He would let them know when the Great Father would see them. He introduced Gov. Thayer, of Wyoming. The Indians then visited the model-room of the Patent Office. (NY Times May 19., 1875)
(I highlighted all names in these articles. I will post more asap.)
Last Edit: Jan 21, 2014 11:35:42 GMT -5 by Dietmar
I got a message from Mike Cowdrey who contributed a couple of corrections to the picture of the 1875 Sioux delegation. We have concentrated so much on the Indian delegates, it seems, that we neglected the persons who travelled with them as interpreters.
The man formerly identified as Mark Wells is surely no other than Louis Bordeaux. As Mike said, Wells worked at Crow Creek, a decade later. Bordeaux was also photographed with the Red Cloud & Spotted Tail delegates when they passed through Omaha in mid-May.
Here we have the portraits of Louis Bordeaux (edited from another group photograph of 1875) and Mark Weels (while in Washington 1888):
Another misidentification is the man we had as Janis. No Janis have been on the trip (Antoine was in Washington in 1877, like Leon Palladay, who can also be excluded from being in the 1875 photo). According to Mike it can only be Todd Randall, favorite interpreter of Red Cloud.
Thank you Mike, for your note! I´ve updated the big 1875 picture: