Hello all, I am a new member looking for information on the wives or children of Young Man in Whose Horses Be Afraid (1836-1991?)? There is mention in the Agonito article about a child who died, but no mention of the rest of his family or names.
Also looking for a copy of the book about the Man Afraid family that is out of print by Kaare Vassenden. Thank you for any info or help.
Found this fascinating photograph of Two Strike and Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses in an article by the Nebraska History magazine. I believe it´s the only portrait of Young-Man-Afraid where he wears a traditional clothing... bonnet, war-shirt, pipe with bag, blanket and moccasins.
Two Strike (Sicangu), W. T. Selwyn & Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horses (Oglala)
Post by kingsleybray on Feb 7, 2012 4:27:58 GMT -5
Thanks Dietmar for the wonderful image. Which issue/article of NEBRASKA HISTORY did you find the photo in?
Since Selwyn, the Yankton-born BIA official (he assembled the Standing Rock census in Sept. 1881, published by Ephriam in THE SITTING BULL SURRENDER CENSUS), was born in 1856, I suggest this photo is 1880s, possibly early 1880s. Given Young Man Afraid is wearing magnificent tribal regalia, I wonder if the context is a Sun Dance?
Any material culture experts who could weigh in here, with thoughts about YMAs regalia? The styles, techniques and so on?
grahamew - well spotted that it's the same shirt that YMA wore to Washington in 1877.
Selwyn was born about March 1856 at Hinhanwakpa (Owl Creek), Dakota Territory. He was the son of Chief Ptewakannajin, commonly known as Medicine Cow, great grandson of Chief Hesaza (He maza? He sapa?), a Yankton. He was taken into a mission family at Yankton Agency, September, 1871. September, 1872, he was sent to Nebraska College, Nebraska City and in 1873 to Brooklyn, N. Y., where he attended the public school. From 1874 to 1876 he was at Andalusia Hall, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. On returning to Yankton Agency he taught and acted as a catechist for about two years in the mission and then as Government teacher in a day school. He then went to Pine Ridge as a teacher and Postmaster (from abt 1877 to 1890?). From Pine Ridge he went to Rosebud and later to Yankton Reservation. On August 26, 1881, Sitting Bull was visited by William T. Selwyn (then the census taker), who counted twelve people in the Hunkpapa leader's immediate family. Forty-one families, totaling 195 people, were recorded in Sitting Bull's band. In November 1886 Selwyn wrote on behalf of Sword, Young Man Afraid and others to Senator Manderson in Washington. The Lakota chiefs called for more support to their efforts to maintain law and order on Pine Ridge Reservation. About 1892-1893 Selwyn was eventually appointed assistant farmer on the Yankton Reservation.
Sources: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE SIOUAN LANGUAGES, by JAMES CONSTANTINE PILLING, WASHINGTON, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1887 (see: archive.org)
Ephriam D. Dickson III, The Sitting Bull Surrender Census: The Lakotas at Standing Rock Agency, 1881, Pierre: South Dakota State Historical Society Press, 2010
and the internet.
I believe the photo of Selwyn with Two Strike and Young Man Afraid was taken about 1877 to 1880.
Post by kingsleybray on Feb 28, 2012 17:33:18 GMT -5
Ok I don't care to see a couple of my heroes dressed up like they're auditioning for a Laurel & Hardy film - but hey that's my problem. Regardless, it's a historic shot of Young Man Afraid and Little Wound. I think we can date it to Feb.-March 1891 - there's still snow around - right after the 1891 delegation to Washington got back home. They had gone to DC in the aftermath of the Ghost Dance crisis and the Wounded Knee tragedy, and both YMAf and LW were among the Pine Ridge leaders. While in DC the entire delegation was bought new suits at Saks' department store. There is a delegation group portrait of them all in these outfits. Here are YMAf and LW back home in theirs.
YMAf was married to a niece of Little Wound's, by the way, so he was in Lakota kinship a son-in-law (takosh). When YMAf died, tragically young in 1893 aged 57, his widow advised their younger son Kills the Enemy (Frank Afraid of Horse in later years) to go and live with her uncle Little Wound, i.e. young Frank's "grandfather". He did so and is noted in the Little Wound household in the Pine Ridge censuses, and was after 1905 allotted land next the Little Wound family in Kyle community.
What strikes me is the clear solidarity and affinity between the two chiefs: father-in-law and son-in-law
dt Crazy Horse and Man Afraid of His Horse acquired horses at the same time (see my notes for Crazy Horse) about 1735. According to George E Hyde, "Red Cloud's Folk", pg 68; This famous Chief was born about 1815, and as He Dog asserts, originally belonged to the camp of Red Cloud's father who was Chief. He is first mentioned in the written records in Dec 23 1844 when as head of a small camp of Oglala on the North Platte he receipted for some annuity goods. In this receipt his name was written "Man Afraid of The Dog" Ta chonce ko ki te, and the second Chief of the camp is set down as White Cottonwood, Wagi ensca. He is next mentioned in 1864 as head Chief of all Oglala. His family, like those of many other famous Chiefs have attempted to make out that his name was given to him after he became a leading man and that is sort of a title of honor. This view has been accepted by most of our authors. It may be noted, however, the Sioux did not have the custom of giving their Chiefs new names of honor after they have become famous, and also according to the statements of the Man Afraid of His Horse family the name has been handed down from father to son for several generations; in fact it goes back to the period of 1730 when the Sioux were obtaining their first horses and were having difficulty in learning to ride these strange animals. When they first observed the rider and the bucking horse, there was concern for their safety and were frightened. The conclusion was -Man was Afraid of His Horse. LaDeane
dt My notes for Crazy Horse Crazy Horse, born about 1691, a Medicine Man, made the journey to the Black Hills in about 1735 where he first saw horses. (see notes for Man Afraid of His Horse) He believed The Great Spirit sent him there to discover these horses. At this time there was not a name in the Souian language for "horse". The words "dog" (sunka) and "horse" (sunka Wakan or tasunka) were sometimes confused by translators. Also an earlier translation was "Elk Dog". when Crazy Horse mounted the animal it went into a violent bucking spree that sent the onlookers scattering yelling tasunka witco, tasunka witco. From then on he was "Crazy Horse" This is speculation derived from later documentation as the origin of “Crazy Horse” and the fact that Crazy Horse’s (of Little Big Horn Fame) father also carried that name. "My son has been against the people of unknown tongue. He has done a brave thing; for this I give him a new name, the name of his father, and of many fathers before him. I give him a great name. I call him Crazy Horse." - Crazy Horse's Father That Cloud Shield, who belongs to Smoke's band says "Crazy Horse says his prayers and goes to war. (This man must have been the father of the Crazy Horse who was in the Custer battle ). Frank Gourard the scout stated that the name Crazy Horse has been handed down in this Chief's family from father to son for several generations. pg 59 "Red Clouds Folk" by George E Hyde
NOTE from;South Dakota historical collections, Volume 9 By South Dakota State Historical Society, South Dakota. Dept. of History- there is no known word in the Siouian language for HORSE before 1750. The closest was ELK DOG, a name that was in reference in early writings. LaDeane