To answer my own question: here's the Cross photo, entitled on the Denver Public Library collection as Brave Bear's wife and brother, not as Brave Bear and brother. Both figures are, of course, men and, interestingly, it's not labelled either way on the back of the Bailey, Dix and Mead mounts... I've blown it up as much as I can before losing the definition of the man on the right:
Last Edit: Nov 20, 2018 15:13:26 GMT -5 by grahamew
Goff probably arrived in Yankton in 1872 to work with Stanley Morrow, no less, established his own studio in Bismarck in Autumn, 1873; by the following Spring, he had opened a new gallery at Fort Abraham Lincoln and by mid-1877 was back at Bismarck.
The usual assumption is that Goff took this photo of Brave Bear - and that it is the man later known as Bob Brave Bear - which, of course, may not be the case as there are three different Brave Bears in The Sitting Bull Surrender Census alone. I would assume that it's taken prior to his initial arrest because I can't see McLaughlin or the army trooping him from Fort Totten (according to McLaughlin's account) to Goff's studio for a mugshot, especially when considering McLaughlin's fear of his escape.
Could it have been taken when he went to Bismarck before his trial at Fargo? It's often assumed that the early photo of Rain in the Face was taken by Goff or Haynes (but in this case, by the backdrop, it is Haynes) while he was captive at Fort Abraham Lincoln, though I'm not sure I buy into that any longer (the backdrop is the same as Haynes' photo of Chief Joseph from 1877 for a start) and according to Louis Garcia's account, that's where Brave Bear was first captured in 1874 by Tom Custer (who also took Rain prisoner). Notice how Louis' account differs from McLaughlin's and the events are spread over a few years before his recapture at Totten in 1877 (78, according to McLaughlin). However, I still can't see a fugitive Indian, who seems to have been well-known, rocking up at a photographer's studio for his photograph Jesse James-style, so I'm guessing this was taken early in 73 or 74 - unless it's the alternate scenario where he was photographed while at Ft Abraham Lincoln. One thing's for certain: when Brave Bear escapes, that's it. There's no chance of another photo until his recapture in late 81/early 82.
So if this is Brave Bear - and I'll grant you, there are similarities, though I think he looks younger and his mouth is smaller - was this taken while he was awaiting trial (possibly as many as six years later), hence the cropped hair and the clothing?
Brave Bear doesn't seem to have endeared himself to the Lakota at whose agencies he sought sanctuary until he killed Joseph Johnson and left for Sitting Bull's band in Canada. When Sitting Bull surrendered, Brave Bear left his camp a day later (a Brave Bear's wife and child are in the Sitting Bull transfer list, but not Brave Bear himself) and was eventually arrested and his trial began in 1882, found guilty and sentenced to death, though there were several postponements and he wasn't hung until November. Ladonna has already shown he wasn't related to Sitting Bull, but he claimed to be his son-in-law at the trial. According to The Chamberlain Register, reprinted in The Yankton Daily Press and Dakotaian, Sitting Bull had denounced Brave Bear late 1881 (possibly because he'd left his wife and child). One of the two interpreters and a witness at the trial was Fish Allison and at the time of Brave Bear's arrest, he was carrying a card signed by Allison that said he was entitled to whiskey. Makes you wonder how a fugitive Indian obtained that from someone in government employ. McLaughlin tried to have the sentence commuted on the grounds that stealing and killing were considered acts of bravery, though Dennis Pope, in Sitting Bull: Prisoner of War, points out that the manner in which the acts were carried out would have been regarded as murder by the Lakota too. Pope also notes that Brave Bear (who McLaughlin refers to as a dandy or dude) was known for dressing as a white man. Makes you wonder how long he was known as Bob and how long he'd dressed like this, which might rule out the photo of him in braids, fur cap and feathers.
Note the style of name-plate often found on Barry's photos.
Despite the name-plate, do the Barry photos even show the same man? Why is he dressed in the same vest, necklace and ermine skin that Louis Sitting Bull is wearing? I had thought, by my - admittedly non-too scientific - reckoning, Barry wasn't using this backdrop until 1883, after Bob Brave Bear's execution, but if it was a year earlier, why would a man who had already escaped twice and was facing the death penalty be allowed to go to Barry's studio at Bismarck or Fort Yates to have a series of photos taken and why would he be allowed to borrow some of Louis Sitting Bull's clothing? However, to be honest, I can also see similarities between this man and the one wearing the hat!
Louie/s Sitting Bull with the Barry label
Louis/Louie Sitting Bull - clearer version
Note the Barry logo on the frame, though he took over Goff's studio and presumably sold some of the latter's work. What is interesting is that the tribal attribution is Hunkpapa whereas Bob Brave Bear was a Cut Head Yanktonai, but perhaps this was because of his later association with Sitting Bull's band.
Last Edit: Aug 9, 2019 12:55:30 GMT -5 by grahamew