Among the Charles W. Carter photographs in the collection of the Church of the Latter-Day Saints I found this portrait which is labelled Red Cloud.
Of course it is not Red Cloud, but clearly Oyuhpe Oglala chief Red Dog. If not by his face, you can identify him by the earrings and necklace he´s wearing... the same he wore when he was with the 1870 and 1872 delegation in Washington.
I wonder when and where Carter could have photographed him. This seems to be early... maybe even before the 1870s trips (?).
Last Edit: Nov 24, 2014 17:42:09 GMT -5 by Dietmar
I thought it was him as soon as I saw him. That's a great site, Dietmar. Thanks for the link. Wasn't Carter working out west at least as dearly as 1867? Apart from this, the earliest photo of Red Dog I'm aware of is from 1872.
Carter probably did not take the above image of Red Dog. He has several Lakota images that he copied from either other negatives or from prints, including one of Spotted Tail, several of Sitting Bull and one of the Indian scaffold graves at Fort Laramie. He did however take some great images of Shoshone, Paiute, Goshute and Ute during the 1860s and 1870s.
Regarding Red Dog, he is wearing these same abalone earrings in several other images from 1872, including three known portraits by Gardner and a fourth image by an unidentified photographer taken at about the same time.
From New York Public Library:
Last Edit: Nov 25, 2014 17:41:25 GMT -5 by ephriam
At least the lower part looks like hair... the upper part appears to be more "fur-like", or what do you think?
I´m convinced the photo was taken before 1872, the way Red Dog looks younger. He has gained weight around that date. But then... there are only few Lakota portraits before 1872. Who could be the photographer, if it´s not Carter?
We have the 1851/52, 1867 and 1870 delegation pics, all look totally different. Then we have the Hamilton photos and the Gardner´s Laramie photos.
Last Edit: Nov 26, 2014 13:18:28 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Post by kingsleybray on Nov 28, 2015 10:56:33 GMT -5
new information from Oglala friends on Red Dog:
He was born Hunkpapa, but married into the Oyuhpe band of Oglalas. His father-in-law was His Horse is Visible, the headman of the Maka-icu (Takes the Earth) sub-band of Oyuhpe. Maka-icu was a very old tiyospaye, reportedly predating the budding off of Oyuhpe from its parent-band the Hunkpatila. His Horse Is Visible was one of the Oyuhpe wakichunze (Deciders, or camp leaders) in the 1830s and 40s.
Red Dog was the Chief Dancer at the 1842 Sun Dance. That means he was the first man to pledge to undergo the Sun Dance ordeal the following summer.
Thank you, Kingsley. This is great information. Red Dog certainly deserves more attention. He is a fascinating individual!
I have been rethinking my earlier comment about the photograph below of Red Dog, preserved in the negative collection of the noted Salt Lake City photographer Charles W. Carter. I originally suspected that this was a copy of someone else's work, but now I am starting to think Carter may have actually taken the image himself. The base of the stand in the background appears to be the same as that in other Carter portraits and there are no photograph edges that are readily apparent in other copy images he made. So that raises the question: when could Red Dog and Carter have crossed paths? As pointed out above, his attire is very similar to what he wore for the delegation visits to Washington, D.C. in 1872.
I now think that this image is from shortly after the 1872 delegation trip. Shortly after returning from Washington, D.C., the agent at the Red Cloud Agency, Dr. J. W. Daniels, received a telegram to travel to the Fort Peck Agency with three Oglala to assist with the treaty discussions over the expansion of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Red Dog accompanied Daniels on this trip. They arrived in Cheyenne on July 10, 1872, and then headed west on the Union Pacific Railroad to Corinne, Utah, then north to Fort Benton and down river to the Fort Peck Agency. I suspect that Daniels and his party may have spent a day or so in Salt Lake City, during which Carter could have taken this photograph. Also accompanying Red Dog on this trip was High Wolf and a young warrior named Wolf Ears. I am going back through the Carter negatives to see if there are other unidentified Lakota portraits that have been missed.
Daniels and his delegation returned in August, coming down the Missouri River aboard the steamer "Sioux City," planning to pick up the Union Pacific at Omaha to go back to Cheyenne. While stopping in Sioux City, I suspect that the second image (the stereo below) was taken, probably by Byron Gurnsey. They arrived back at the Red Cloud Agency in late August or early September. On Sept. 4, Red Dog gave a speech about his experience at Fort Peck.
Hopefully this provides some context for both of these historic images!
Last Edit: Nov 28, 2015 20:18:58 GMT -5 by ephriam
Great new details on Red Dog's Oyuhpe father-in-law, Kingsley.
I'm fascinated by the quirt (whip) he is holding in his hand in the 1872 image. This would be a badge of office of a leader in one of the warrior societies, but not sure as there is not a lot of detail to see unfortunately. I think I can make out brass tacks on the wooden handle (or is it my imagination?) but no fur or beads on the wrist strap. Any suggestions?
Thanks for this new information Kingsley and Ephriam.
I´ve looked through the Carter photos I saved but can´t find more Lakotas. Do you have access to more pictures of Carter than those that are online in the collection of the Church of Latter-Day-Saints, Ephriam?
Regarding the Gurnsey photo (or is it by Hamilton?): I always thought it was taken at the same session with the rest of the 1872 delegation. But all of the other delegates were photographed sitting on a tree. But not Red Dog. So at least it is possible that he was portraited in the studio later.
Dietmar: You are correct. This second portrait of Red Dog was taken by Hamilton or one of his partners, not by Gurnsey. Hamilton bought out Gurnsey's negatives and continued to reprint them with his own imprint. However, in this case, Gurnsey had sold out in late 1871 and had moved to Colorado. The backdrop confirms this was in Hamilton's studio.
Regarding the missing log, I think it is important to remember that while both the delegation photographs and the Red Dog portrait were all taken in 1872, they were not taken at the same time. Presumably this portrait of Red Dog was taken in late August 1872 when he arrived in Sioux City. I will have to dig through my notes but I think the delegation passed through Sioux City two months earlier. That might explain why the log and branches are not precisely the same.
Actually Red Dog is the only Oglala of the 1872 delegation I´ve seen photographed by Hamilton, yet. It seems the Brule were left out as well, or at least these photos have not been discovered. I wonder if the portraits of High Wolf and Wolf Ears are hidden somewhere.