Post by Californian on Feb 1, 2019 18:48:18 GMT -5
Frank Grouard (1850-1905), a native from the Society Islands in the South Pacific, born to an American missionary (Mormon) and a Polynesian woman and whose story is well known to history, lived for several years with Sitting Bull's band and also briefly with Crazy Horse's. Then he defected to become General Crook's lead scout during the Great Sioux War of 1876 and he effectively betrayed the Lakota. I see some information on the internet where people claim that he had a Lakota wife and several children, supposedly five. But of course it is not sure if that really is true. Anyone with information as to whether there is an substance to this claim or can it be put to rest? I researched and documented Frank Grouard's later life, he married in 1895 in St Louis a Caucasian woman named Belle Ostrander and had at least 1 son, possible 2 by her but then quickly abandoned that family.
Frank Grouard - married in 1882 at Standing Rock, Fort Yates, D.T. to White Cow Ptesaniyayewin (born 1860 - death ?)
Children: -Aglaglaiyanke Running Chase, born 1883 - died ? -Tasunkewakanwin Holy Horse, born 1887 - died ? -Cetanwastewin Pretty Hawk, born 1892 - died ? -Cekpawin Dora Standing Bear, born 1894 - died ? -Cekpawin Nora Standing Bear, born 1894 - died ?
It was created by Familysearch.org themselves in 2012, possibly grandfathered-in from a previous posting on their predecessor site.
This is really peculiar and to me seems a bit fishy.
Last Edit: Feb 1, 2019 22:01:42 GMT -5 by Californian: typos
I haven´t concentrate too much on Grouard yet, but I´ve read in Joe DeBarthe´s biography on him (which we have to take cautiously) that White Cow was the name of Sitting Bull´s sister, who cared for him in Sitting Bull´s lodge.
I also read that Standing Bear was the name given to Grouard by the Lakota when he was with Sitting Bull.
According to later accounts and photographs, Grouard seems to be living on Pine Ridge reservation.
Post by Californian on Feb 4, 2019 21:52:44 GMT -5
Thanks and yes, I agree, Frank Grouard's memoir "The Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard: Chief of Scouts, U.S.A." is full of tall tales. He was a celebrity and likely embellished everything.
Hereon below are a few tid-bids about what is officially on record about Frank Grouard:
- In early November 1890 he got injured (thrown off a horse, dislodged his should and suffered a broken rib) - then he was based at Fort McKinney near modern day Buffalo, Wyoming, that was about 300 miles from Pine Ridge but yes, he was documented present there right after the Wounded Knee Massacre.
- On April 6th 1895 he married the music teacher Annabelle "Belle" Ostrander in Savannah, Andrew County, Missouri which is near Kansas City.
- The 1900 Census shows Belle Grouard living in St. Joseph without her husband in the household of her mother and two boys boys named Henry Grouard age 7 and Frank Grouard age 4 (1900 Census, Missouri, Buchanan County, St. Joseph, Ward 1, ED 46, page 1, lines)
- The 1900 Census also shows a Benjamin F. Grouard, scout, living by himself at Fort Robinson, Nebraska (1900 Census, Nebraska, Dawes County, Fort Robinson, page 49a, line 21) - there it is stated that he was married since 7 years.
- Frank Grouard died in St. Louis, Missouri on 15 August 1905 and was buried with full military honors at Ashland Cemetery in St. Joseph, Missouri the city where his wife and sons lived.
- The 1910 Census shows Belle Grouard still living in the household of her parents with her two sons (1910 Census, Missouri, Buchanan County, St. Joseph City, ED 78, page 3b, line 75-77)
- Belle Ostrander Grouard died on the 13th March 1912 in St. Joseph, Missouri aged 46 and was buried in the family plot of her parents at Mount Mora Cemetery in that city.
- That same year, on the 27th November 1912 son Benjamin Franklin Grouard, age 16 (born 15th May 1895) married in St. Joseph the 18 year-old Ethel M. Poe. In the city directory he appears as Frank B. Grouard, musician (1912, 1914)
- 1917 - June 5th, Frank Grouard got drafted for service in World War 1 - by then 21 years old and living in Detroit, Michigan
- 1919 - June 3rd, Frank Grouard got discharged from active military service - by then living in Cincinnati, Ohio
Thereafter no further information about this family can be found anywhere. The older brother, Henry possibly died young and Frank perhaps succumbed to the Great Influenza Pandemic of that time period (1919 to 1920)
Nowhere in any public record was any mention that the scout Frank Grouard had a Lakota family. It is presumably more likely than not that he indeed had a Lakota wife and family for a period of time and just abandoned them when he defected to join General Crook's command in around 1875.
Yes, Grouard was undoubtedly a dazzling personality.
That's what i have on him
Frank Grouard (20 September 1850 – 15 August 1905) was a Scout and interpreter for General George Crook during the Indian Wars of 1876. Between 1891 and 1893, Grouard dictated his life to journalist Joseph DeBarthe. He told DeBarthe that he was born in the Society Islands in the South Pacific, the second of three sons born to Benjamin F. Grouard and a Polynesian woman. That he was raided by the Crows, saved by Hunkpapas and that Sitting Bull adopted him as brother [! SB was dead then an could not confirm his words!].
Grouard’s father Benjamin Franklin Grouard (1819–1894) was one of the earliest Latter Day Saint Missionaries to what is now French Polynesia. In 1846, Grouard landed on the Tuamotu Islands. When the other missionaries left, Grouard stayed and married a native woman, Nahina. In 1852, Grouard and his family returned to California USA, where his parents divorced about 1855. About that year, Frank Jun. was adopted into the family of Addison and Louisa Barnes Pratt, fellow Mormon missionaries of his father. In her diary Louisa referred to the child as her “little island boy”, but he never really fit into the family. Finally, Grouard moved with the Pratt family to Utah, where he ran away at age 15. He worked as an express rider and stage driver. Although his family background was in dispute, according to “Witness” by Waggoner / Levine and Robert M. Utley (with regard to the Addison and Louisa Pratt Papers) “… Grouard’s parentage and early life are no longer mysterious”.
However, Utley and Levine rate DeBarthe’s “Frank Grouard” as “… informative yet often fanciful …”.
About 1869 Grouard was captured by Crow Indians in Montana, who took all his possessions and abandoned him in a forest. Later Hunkpapa Indians picked him up. Because his Polynesian features resembled those of the Sioux, he was adopted into the tribe. Grouard related to DeBarthe that Little Assiniboine and White Eagle (Gray Eagle?) guarded him closely for 16 months, before he was released from this custody. He definitely knew SB, e.g. he reported SB’s well-defined limp. Grouard claims that SB adopted him as brother. But he was the only one who mentioned this adoption. Grouard’s book was published in 1894, years after SBs death and the WK massacre. Grouard could claim whatever he wanted. There was no one who would contradict.
Grouard married a Sioux woman and learned to speak the Sioux language, taking the Indian name “Yugata” (“Sitting-with-Upraised-Hands” or “Grabber”); some called him “Standing Bear” as he had been captured wearing a bearskin. About six to seven years he lived in the camps of Sitting Bull (from 1869) and Crazy Horse (from 1873? - 1875) until he managed to escape. Grouard uses the word "escape" for his departure. This contradicts his claim that he has been adopted. Then he would have been free to go when and where he wanted. Adoption by SB is unlikely; this would have required a formal ritual. Of this, nothing is known yet. More likely, he has been accepted as an additional hunter and provider in the camp, especially as he was a good shooter and definitely not white. Over the years, Grouard gave differing accounts of his reasons for leaving the Lakotas. One was that he had married a Sioux girl and “a misunderstanding with his wife’s relatives made the village too hot for him.
Grouard claims that he spoke Lakota fluently. But this was contested by Louis Bordeaux, the son of James und Marie “Huntkalutawin” Bordeaux. Louis said of Grouard that he “spoke Indian very broken” (Voices of the American West: The Indian Interviews of Eli S. Ricker ..., Band 1, p. 292). Louis said this in connection with Grouard's role as translator for the Agency officials, days before Crazy Horse's escape to the Spotted Tail Agency. However, starting in 1875/76, Grouard worked as a scout for the US military. A year later, he accompanied Gen. Crook in the Rosebud battlefield and then led the military to the LBH battlefield. Later Grouard reported that he saw smoke from signal fires indicating that Custer's command was then engaged, outnumbered, and being badly pressed. The officers who used their field glasses took no notice of the smoke and laughed at the idea that a "half-Indian" might have noticed something.
Grouard was married several times. Very likely he had one or two unions with Lakota women. However, we know no names. After fleeing the Lakota camp, he arrived at the Pine Ridge Agency in fall 1875, where he accepted jobs with trader J.W. Dear before working as scout.
There he also met Sally, Billy Garnett’s older half-sister, and married her according to Indian custom. Then there was an additional marriage to Eulalia “Lalie”, sister to fellow scout and half-breed Baptiste Garnier a.k.a. Little Bat (1854 -1900). Finally, on April 10, 1895 Grouard married Lizabell "Belle" Ostrander (1862-1912). At least one son, possibly two, seem to have been the result of this union.
(Sources: some books I have to look up and the Internet):
Post by natethegreat on May 10, 2019 17:13:11 GMT -5
Frank Grouard was adopted by Sitting Bull instead of being killed by him. Sitting Bull later regrets this, because it is Grouard who ends up leading the way for alot of the engagements that happened. He knew how to think like a Lakota. He was Custers favorite scout. This man is single handidly responsible for nearly all of the success of the U.S. Army in the 1870's. Its amazing how many times he struck luck and found a trail that led to some sort of victory for the Army. When it was freezing cold and most of the soldiers were huddling in their tents, Frank Grouard was out there scouting. This guy is a legend of the Sioux Wars when it comes to U.S. Army Scouts.