White Bull indeed signed the 1876 treaty on October 16th, 1876 among other Sans Arcs. I guess this relates to the inscription on the latter Cross image?
However, also in October 1876, some month after the Little Bighorn battle, a large contingent of Minicojous and Sans Arc surrendered to General Miles. He sent the people on to surrender at Cheyenne River agency, but not without holding back five hostages. These were Red Skirt, White Bull, Black Eagle, Sun Rise and Foolish Thunder.
Some concluded that one of the hostages was the better known Minicojou White Bull. Is it possible that he was rather the Sans Arc leader of that name. The original letter Miles wrote shows that this White Bull was the father of Small Bear:
0811-0819 10/28/1876 Miles writes Terry from Camp on Bad Route Creek, M.T. elaborating upon the conditions under which the chiefs surrendered:
“Hearing that you may not understand just the conditions upon which these Indian Chiefs surrendered, I write you again. Red Skirt is principal chief of the Minneconjous, and related to Bulls Eagle, who takes his tribe of about 60 lodges to the Agency; White Bull is father of Small Bear, who takes in his band of about 50 lodges; Black Eagle and Sunrise are Chiefs, and Foolish Thunder, head warrior of the Sans Arcs. I cannot say the exact number that they will take in, although Red Skirt claims to be Chief of 1300 lodges. I presume this includes some at the Agencies. I think they should take in 200 and possibly 500 lodges. I believe the work, as far as this command is concerned, has been well done; and what is to be accomplished will depend upon the manner in which these Chiefs are treated and the reception their people receive on their arrival. Bulls Eagle was told, and I believe, fully understood that on his arrival there he should turn in his arms, particularly the Springfield Carbines, and such horses as the government should require. I would recommend that what property is taken from them be sold at some good market and the proceeds returned to the owners in domestic stock; for there is no doubt that they will be poor enough in a short time. If they can be encouraged to become a pastoral people, they should, in that way, become self-sustaining. They are very suspicious, and of course afraid, that some terrible punishment will be inflicted upon them. Bulls Eagle tells me that the interpreter at the Cheyenne Agency informed them that the ‘whites are going to do something terrible to them.’ This of course does no good and frightens his people. If any change is made in their condition, I think that it would be well if it were made later in the winter and after they are all in. If we can keep them divided and destroy ‘Sitting Bull’s influence, I think we can end this trouble in time. Sitting Bull’s band is the wildest on the continent, and strange as it may seem, there were people in his tribe who had never seen the face of a white man before October twenty-first; and when one of my soldiers went with the interpreter to his band, he was looked upon as a strange and curious thing. I believe Sitting Bull would be glad to make a peace, at least for a time; but he is afraid he has committed an unpardonable offense. The Cheyennes reported as having gone to the Little Horn Country. I believe crossed or will cross near the mouths, and will be found on the Big Dry. I presume they, with Sitting Bull’s band, will number near 500 lodges.
“P.S. Since sending these warriors in I have appraised General Hagen of my intention of moving immediately north from Tongue River, in order to move on any Indians that may be on the Big Dry, and also to follow those gone to Fort Peck, and have requested him to place supplies at the latter point.
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 23, 2017 6:46:56 GMT -5
wonderful new picture --- I just want to make clear that the White Bull in Miles's report to Gen. Terry is not the Sans Arc leader here. He was a Miniconjou, whose actual name was Hehlogecha Ska, White Hollow Horn. Hollow horn was a Lakota expression for a young bull, sometimes defined as a yearling but defined by Black Elk as a two-year old bull. This chief, one of the intake of men made wichasha itanchan (a band leader or 'chief') by the Miniconjou council in 1853, was the father of Little Bear (mentioned in the Miles report).
I'd love to know when the top photo was taken. The Cross photos (and I've seen the full length one credited to Scott - see the photo of Crawler with the same backdrop) is dated circa 1885 - though that may be guesswork too!
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 24, 2017 4:21:49 GMT -5
White Bull (Tatanka Ska) was the headman of a small Sans Arc (Itazipcho) band living near Cheyenne River Agency by the mid-1870s. The 1876 military register of the agency lists his age as 54, supposedly born about 1822.
In January 1875 the agency census conducted by the civilian agent (Bingham) lists just six family lodges, 55 people, for his band. White Bull One tries to run White Tail One lays out doors One got scared White Faced Bull
The Army took over in late summer 1876 and in September compiled its own census or register. It assigned seven families, 25 people, to White Bull. White Bull The Hawk on the Hill He that Charges White Tailed Bird Not Afraid of the Enemy Johnny White Bull (age 16, "At school in Shellsburg Iowa") Left Hand woman
When the military retook their census late in November or early December 1876 they revised the population downward, including the following of White Bull, now reduced to: White Bull The Hawk on the hill He that Charges White tailed Bird
- a total of just 15 people.
It is interesting that this version observes that White Bull's band (and that of Scared the Hawk) was "Consolidated with Crow Feather" -- considered to be the "Head chief of the Sans Arcs". This suggests a family relationship may have existed btw the important Crow Feather dynasty and White Bull.
The army revised its register again on December 29th, 1876, without assigning families to bands or sub-bands. This register formed the basis of the Cheyenne River Agency rolls for the next two or three years. White Bull's family is listed with the notation that "Two boys (Johnny Robb and Charley Tah-tahn-ka-skah) left with Capt. Pratt for Hampton Roads Va Oct[ober] 1878". Johnny Robb presumably equates with the Johnny White Bull of the Sept. 1876 record. Captain Pratt was the founder of the boarding school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and the boys were probably enrolled there -- Dietmar can probably help with the school records.
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 24, 2017 6:22:55 GMT -5
White Bull was an important man at Cheyenne River Agency in the mid-1870s. When part of the Black Hills Commission visited in early August 1875 (accompanied by Red Dog, No Flesh and other headmen from Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies) to announce the major council to be held in one month's time near Red Cloud, the Cheyenne River council fielded White Bull as their sole spokesman. A newspaper account mentions White Bull's regalia -- clearly the shirt depicted in the photos above.
"White Bull is a handsome specimen of the wild Indian. He was dressed in a picturesque costume composed of skins of the mountain lion". White Bull's speech is then printed.
White Bull was part of the delegation from Cheyenne River that travelled south to attend the Black Hills council. He is mentioned several times in newspaper coverage of the event. See James E. Potter, ed., From Our Special Correspondent: Dispatches from the 1875 Black Hills Council at Red Cloud Agency, Nebraska (Nebraska State Hist. Soc., 2016).
The portrait photos of White Bull's daughters demonstrate that they and their family were truly part of the social elite of the Sans Arc people. The red paint on their cheeks with the finely drawn lines on their foreheads is symbolic of their status as hunka -- that is they had been ceremonially adopted and many gifts had been made to the poor by them or by their parents.
Post by kingsleybray on Jan 24, 2017 9:11:14 GMT -5
It's interesting that White Bull gave the formal speech welcoming the Black Hills commissioners to Cheyenne River Agency, on August 3rd, 1875. He also gave the last reported speech to the second Black Hills commission, on October 16th, 1876, immediately before the chiefs and headmen signed the agreement ceding the Black Hills.
"The Sioux boys were, as regards dress and general behavior, quite up to the average of many lads to be met with even day among civilized people. All had lived on reservations four or five years, and the Sioux have some education in their native tongue. But one, however, can talk English, a lad of seventeen years, son of White Bull, a Sioux chief. This boy had been adopted in a white family, and has received two years of public school education at Lima, Ohio. He was neatly dressed, polite and affable, and it did not take a questioner long to find that "John Robb," the name he has taken from his benefactor, is a young gentleman. A little hoodlum, all smiles and capers, was introduced as Charley White Bull, brother of John Robb. Charley looked as though he could enjoy the same kind of fun that white boys are fond of. John Robb said their father and mother are living, and they expect to return to their parents at the end of three years."
from: The Cincinnati Daily Star, November 16, 1878
"From Cheyenne River Agency you have: John Robb, seventeen years old, Sans Arc Sioux; has had some advantages which he appears to have improved. He speaks English quite well. Was two years in Ohio at school -sent there by Mr. Robb, the trader, and took his name. His father, White Bull, is a tall fine looking, clear-headed Indian, and anxious that his children should have the best influences of civilization."
from: Southern Workman, Vol. 1, Hampton, VA, June, 1872, Hampton, Virginia, Newspapers, Issues of the Southern Workman, 1872-1880 page 590
..perhaps James Crew Robb, trader at Cheyenne River agency?
"...the Indian Trader, James C. Robb, was born in Ohio in 1845, and moved with his wife, two-year-old son, cousin, two servants, and ranch hand, to Fort Bennett, Stanley, Dakota Territory by 1880. Robb is noted as a Dealer in General Merchandise."
Robb, John: Sioux (Cheyenne River, SD) November 1878-1879. John became ill during his 1879 summer outing and died in New York on August 21, 1879. He was the son of Chief Tatankaska, but was adopted by the agency trader.
"Charlie White Bull, Tatanka-ska, full-blood, age 12. When Mr. Robbins, a Hampton teacher went West to take a position in the Santee School, he took Charlie with him. He came East after a few years and Charlie returned to his father at Stand- ing Rock, where he soon established a home. He is a bright, intelligent young man, and, when in '88, the Sioux Bill was presented for signature he and his father were the first to put themselves on the progressive side and sign it."
Kingsley, I first thought that it was only an erroneous statement that Charley White Bull returned to Standing Rock. But there was indeed a Charlie White Bull there. I don´t know if he was the same person though. This Charlie/Charles White Bull made a testimony in the case of the Spicer murders in 1897. He lived at Grand River about 30 miles south of Standing Rock agency.
Last Edit: Jan 26, 2017 10:51:13 GMT -5 by Dietmar