Both interesti ng articles - as are those on the author's own site. Interesting also that the article with the drawing of Plains Indians scalping a man and being passed off as Modocs is the same one that has the more realistic' depiction of the Modocs with Jack killing Canby. Also interesting, in terms of realism, is that the other article uses that photo said to be of Jack but looking more like an Indian living considerably to the east of Modoc homeland. I'd love to see another photo with that backdrop to know one way or the other.
Yes, grahamew, I also was thinking about that one photo showing Capt. Jack with long hair and what looks more like traditional clothing,- if this is really him. This photo is said to show the Chief indeed, to find in several articles and books. I was trying to compare this photo with one of him wearing shorter hairs, and the faces are looking very similar to me. Features of nose, eyes, cheekbones looks the same to me. There´s question as to how authentic the clothing on the photo was, regarding traditional oriented Modoc style. Maybe just some outfit of the photo Studio ? On the other Hand I did read that also Modocs have been somewhat influenced by Plains / or Plateau style clothing to some degreeö, thru trading contacts. But photos seem to show only Modocs in mostly white man´s attire, beside mocassins still in use also after 1870 I think. Looks like there is no photo around that informs explicitly about traditional Modoc attire.
About the only things left of 'Indian' attire are moccasins - and ironically, the photo of 'Jack' seems to depict a man with a pair of boots on under his leggings - possibly something he's just picked up in town before visiting the studio.
I wonder how it was originally identified as Jack. Just based on likeness?
The photograph of Captain Jack ( buckskin clothing ) was taken prior the Modoc War, probably by Louis Herman Heller.
( Occasion for that photograph could have been the Modoc Treaty of 1864, Captain Jack was a signatory of that treaty . Maybe, for this reason Heller photographed Captain Jack sometime after that treaty. My personal guess !! )
Heller, born in Germany, emigrated to the United States in the mid-1850s, and was an assistant to lithographer Julius Bien in the production of the Bien edition of Audubon's THE BIRDS OF AMERICA. In the early 1860s, Heller went to California and established himself as a photographer in Yreka in 1863. He moved to Fort Jones in 1869 and worked there for the rest of the century.
Around 1800, the Modocs adopted some Plains style traits, including buckskin clothing, thus it seems possible, that Captain Jack was wearing such clothing, even mixed with settlers clothing ( boots )
Back to the question > Who really caught Captain Jack ? <
Some happenings at the surrender remain unresolved, but the surrender words of Captain Jack we know. At the surrender, he simply said „ Jack's legs give out „
Thanks Cinemo, for your additional informations of the photo. That sheds some light on it.
Regarding the style of Dress of the Modocs, I was going back to a book I´ve here, for some Information:
The Modoc, Odie B. Faulk and Laura E. Faulk, Indians of North America Chelsea House Publishers 1988
Statement on clothing is :
The Modoc clothing was as functional as their homes (description of house styles Prior to clothing been). For winter wear, moccasins, Leggings, hats, Shirts, skirts, and Robes were made from furry animal hides. In summer many of the same articles of clothing, as well as loincloths for the men, were made from the plentiful tule or other grasses that grew in the area. The woven articles did not last as Long as those made of fur, but they were far more easily and quickly made. Additional warmth was gained in winter by wearing Robes woven of fur or grass, which were tied around the neck and waist to hold in Body heat. All of the clothing was made by the women. Both men and women might wear a basket - shaped hat on their heads. Hats of men were plain, the women often wove decorative designs into their´s.Those hats were waterproof and gave protection from the elements. In winter, the preferred hat was of fur and had flaps to cover the ears.
Further to find in this book is a photo of Capt. Jack´s partially beaded buscksin moccasins from about 1870. Also a round Dance drum to see, with the addition, the Modoc´s work in hide Shows the Plains influence. At another place in the book we can read, - by the mid 19th century Buckskin was the Primary material for much of their clothing.
Of course, apparently photos of Modocs taken around 1870 and after do not show any signs of Buckskin beside Moccasins, as far to my knowledge. So the Modocs took over mainly White man´s clothing for everyday wear by that time it seems to me.
Plains influence: Thru intertribal trade the Modocs became familiar with first items brought by the Whites, probably shortly before the year 1800, even though without seeing any european. Steel knives, hatchets, mirrors, Cloth,ribbon, glass beads and iron pots they were quick to adopt into their traditional life style. Changes of the Modoc´s traditional way of life happend already by the mid 1830´s - but not only thru non-Indian influence. Also influenced by Plains Indians, whom the Modocs met while trading for horses, material culture began to Change at that time. By the example of These Plains Indians, they abondoned their summer loincloths of tule or grass and wore Buckskin clothing instead.
A late example of such a clothing style will be those perhaps, though of the closely related Klamath:
"Kintpuash (Modoc) frequently visited the Northern California town of Yreka in the 1860s. T.N. Wood made this portrait of Kintpuash there in 1864." (see: An American Genocide: 'The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe' by Benjamin Madley, Yale University Press, page 339)
There's a Thomas M Wood operating on the Fraser River and Nevada City, California in the 1850s and early 60s. By 66, he's in The Dalles, Oregon. I guess I'd like to see other photos with this backdrop that can be tied to Yreka. Granted, the style of clothing could have passed across the Plateau through Oregon to Northern California but existing photos of other tribes in remnants of traditional costume from a slightly later period show nothing resembling our man's outfit. He reminds me of photos of Shoshone and Pahute too - but then again, I haven't seen Jack's backdrop in any photos of those people either, so who knows?