If you ever have time, I would love for you to look over a crude spreadsheet I have on my family history. It appears that I have lineage to both Chief Smoke and Chief Red Cloud through the Amiotte - Janis - Lebouf families. I am curious as to my accuracy and to see if anyone can fill in the blanks. If anyone else would like to review, it would be appreciated also!
Hi Deb, thanks - however, according to the Smithsonian Department of Anthropology there're also bead decorations and that's what my non-pro eyes see too. :-)
"The shirt was decorated with well-executed seed beads, a V-shaped neck flap, and a large circular beaded disc attached to the center of the front and back, surrounded by small circular quilled discs. The designs and colors of this early beadwork example have a decidedly Cheyenne look, possibly the result of the tendency of Oglalas to marry Cheyenne women. The back of the shirt has more decorations than the front. According to the accession letter, the back also had a number of horsehair locks dyed yellow and blue along the margins of the beaded bands together with ermine, both winter white and summer brown. "
Old Chief Smoke Reign; 1800-1864, Chief Man Afraid I Reign; 1851, 1864-1868, Old Bull Bear No Reign; 1834-1841.
Red Cloud Reign; 1868-1909, Chief Jack Red Cloud Reign; 1909-1928, Chief James Red Cloud Reign; 1928-1960, Chief Charles Red Cloud Reign; 1960-1979, Chief Oliver Red Cloud Reign; 1979-Present.
American Horse No Reign; 1895-1895.
Old Man Smoke was the Original Head Chief of the Teton Hunkpatila -Oglalas- and Lakota Sioux Nation. His reign for sixty-four years as the original head-chief and his reign was the longest reign ever of any head chief in the Lakota history; 1800-1864.
Old Bull Bear was not a head chief anytime during his life but was a headman and first chief of the Kiyaksa band of Eastern Teton -Hunkpatila- Oglala Lakotas; 1834-1841.
Man Afraid I was the first-born son of Smoke and was semi-appointed as the second main-head man and the next chief to led the people by Smoke at the treaty of 1851. When Smoke died in 1864 Man Afraid took over as the Original Head Chief. His reign was only four years and 1 month as the second original head-chief; 1864-1868. Young Man Afraid II was supposed to inherit the original line of the Leadership when his father Man Afraid I passed away in 1899.
Red Cloud was not supposed to be a high rank head chief or anything like that and Smoke didn’t authorize that Red Cloud would be a prominent chief, just as a warrior and some type of a minor-leader. But that all changed at the treaty of 1868 when the U.S. Government appointed him as the head-chief of all the Sioux, Red Cloud took it and ran with it. One of his first acts, he over throw Man Afraid I as the original head chief and try to exile him and other prominent chiefs and told the people that he was the chief now. His reign for forty-one as the new line of head chief and his reign was the second longest reign of any head chief in the Lakota history; 1868-1909.
American Horse was appointed by the hands of Agent McGillycuddy as the new head-chief of the Oglalas in 1895 at the Agency because the agent was trying to diminish the power of Red Cloud. But Red Cloud regains his power and continues the leadership. American Horse’s reign was short lived; 1895-1895.
Jack Red Cloud was the only son of Red Cloud and who took over as the head chief of Oglalas when his father passed away in 1909. He never became like his father or his status, but Jack’s reign for nineteen years as the chief; 1909-1928.
James Red Cloud was the Oldest of the two sons of Jack and became the head chief of Oglalas when his father died in 1928. He reign for thirty-two years as the chief; 1928-1960 and his reign was the third longest reign of any head-chief in the Lakota history. After his grandfather Red Cloud who reign for forty-one as the new head chief and his great-grandfather Old Chief Smoke who reign for sixty-four as the first original head chief.
Charles Red Cloud was the Youngest of the two sons of Jack and became the head chief of the Oglalas when his nephew Edgar (Edgar was the son of James) didn’t want the responsibilities of leading the people. So Charles took over as the head chief of the Oglalas when his brother James passed away in 1960. Charles reign for nineteen years as the chief; 1960-1979
Oliver Red Cloud is the oldest son of Charles and became the head Chief of the Oglalas when his father passed away in 1979. His reign thirty-one years now as the head chief and his reign is the fourth (soon to sure pass his uncle James’s thirty-two reign) longest reign of any head chief in the Lakota history; 1979-Present. Oliver is 90 years old now and he is a well-respected statesman amongst the Lakota people and Oliver is the chairman of the Black Hills Sioux Nation Treaty Council.
Oliver has two sons but his oldest son; Verdell died almost two years ago and his youngest son; Lyman who use to be really active in traditional politics, is now living in a nursing-home and is in bad health. Oliver has a nephew named Alfred Red Cloud; he is the minor-chief of a community called Collier on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and a headman of the Oglala people. But I think Alfred died last summer?
Some Lakota (Oglala) people said; “They kind of don’t like the Red Cloud family and want them remove from the traditional power!”
The first original line of the leadership.
Old Chief Smoke - Chief Man Afraid I - Chief Young Man Afraid II - Chief Frank Afraid of His Horses - Paul Afraid of His Horses - Ed Afraid of His Horses.
The second original line of the leadership.
Old Chief Smoke - Chief Solomon "Smoke" II - Chief Wendell Smoke - Melvin "Emil" Smoke -- Wendyll Smoke.
Frank and Wendell were the last chiefs of the Man Afraid and Smoke Families.
Paul died from a construction accident and Emil never succeeded to be the chief.
The two original lines of Oglala Leadership of today are;
Ed but he’s just a modern day warrior of the Toklala’s Warriors/Veterans Society and the keeper of Chief Man Afraid I’s Headdress.
Me; Wendyll, my uncles; Edward and Ben Smoke don’t want the responsibility, so that make me the next in line in the Smoke family (I’m the third oldest male –after my two uncles- out of the males in the Smoke’s line with the Smoke name). I never claim to be the chief or headman, maybe that’s later on in my life.
Severt state; he never got interested in Smoke line of Chiefs!
But look in his book "Standing in the Light" he talks about the Smokes alot and there are only pictures of the Smokes (his mother Sophie Smoke's family) and none pictures of his father William Y.B.'s family!
he claimed all descendants of the old Chief Smoke was ok if he went to D.C. to get the body of Chief Smoke back in 1994, but the Smoke family was kinda fearious at him because they didn't authorize him and didn't know about it!
Chief Smoke's reburial was in 1994 and not in 1996!
Severt claimed too, he was the senior lineage descendant of the old Chief Smoke and his sister Elizabeth Y.B. is claiming to be the senior lineage descendant of the old Chief Smoke now!
But they was not named a Smoke by their mother Sophie, so they and their families are Ex-cluded from the Smoke line!
My aunt; Vi-na Conroy Smoke and me are the Original Heads of the Smoke Family!
it goes like this; The oldest to the youngest; Vina Conroy Smoke, Edward Smoke, Benjamin Smoke and Oleaupi Good Lance Smoke, Wendyll Smoke, Gwendyllyn Smoke, and Šótah Conroy, Benny Smoke Jr. and Zhaine Smoke. Then my aunt Vina Smoke's 4 other kids who are named after their father Arlo Conroy and then my late mother Bertha Smoke's 2 other kids who are named after their fathers!
There are 9 original Smokes and 6 other persons who are in the direct line of Smoke!
So the total is 15 Heirs in the Smoke Family today!
Contact: W. Smoke
Last Edit: Nov 25, 2010 13:11:12 GMT -5 by W. Smoke
Post by kingsleybray on Nov 25, 2010 3:52:57 GMT -5
Great to hear from you Wendyl, and thanks for more information on the Smoke line of chiefs.
I wondered if you have more information on the Standing Bull who was such an important leader of the Oglala in the 1700s. In an earlier message you stated that Smoke was a descendant, maybe grandson of his. The Standing Bull (Tatanka Nazin) family belonged to the Hunkpatila band of the Oglalas.
You've mentioned several times that Bull Bear's band the Kiyuksa belonged to the "Eastern Teton". Can you expand on what 'Eastern' refers to in this context? I am trying to trace the histories of the Lakota bands and the Kiyuksa are an important thread in the story.
Finally I am also very interested in the lives of Old Man Afraid of His Horse and Red Cloud. I'd like to know more about the 'dynamic' of their relationship. In your new message you mention, for instance, that Red Cloud 'exiled' Old Man Afraid after 1868 when RC was recognized by the government as the head chief of the Oglalas. Have you any more details? Also were there times when the relationship between the two men was more positive?
Many thanks for your help and the information you're posting
Well when Smoke was born in 1774, he was named "Standing Bull" ( Wakan Lala/"Tatanka Nazin") after his paternal gandpa Standing Buffalo. In his youth, the Toklala Society gave him a chief's name; Smoke. In his latter years, he took the name of Slow Bull but the Smoke name stayed with him until his death in 1864.
Standing Buffalo (1730-1750) was from the Teton Blackfeet Lakota band.
Smoke's mother Looking Walker Woman was from the Teton Hunkpatila -Oglalas- Lakota band and not his paternal grandpa Standing Buffalo.
In 1600's-early 1700's the Teton Hunkpatilas (The Camp at the End of the Circle), and the Lakotas was the youngest out of the other Dakota/Nakota/Zakota Sioux Nations but the Teton Lakotas knock off the Dakotas as the Prominent and Dominant Nation and became the most Powerful Nation among the other Great Sioux Nations!
I meant that after Smoke split the Oglala Tribe into divisions in 1834, Bull Bear and his Kiyaska band of the Oglalas became known as Eastern Oglalas when they settled in Kyle, SD.
The Ite Sica band of Smoke settled in Pine Ridge, SD
Note: Smoke (1774-1864) and Bull Bear (1790-1841) died before the Reservation was created.
Man Afraid I and Red Cloud were cousins/brothers, Man Afraid had 21 years different then Red Cloud. Their relationship was good in their younger years and Man Afraid I took apart in helping his father Smoke to raised Red Cloud.
But after 1868 the relationship turn sour and two men didn't see eye to eye anymore until Man Afraid I's death in 1899.
In 1890's Young Man Afraid II made peace with his uncle Red Cloud because the two men didn't wanted see anymore feuding and plus the people was going through a hard time also.
Contact: W. Smoke
Last Edit: Nov 26, 2010 2:52:26 GMT -5 by W. Smoke
Post by kingsleybray on Nov 26, 2010 5:39:55 GMT -5
Thanks for more detail, Wendyll. And lots more interesting information. I was interested to read about Smoke's joining the Tokala (Kit Fox) warrior society in his youth. Do we know any more about his warrior society membership, like did he become a lance-owner or some other kind of headman in the Tokala?
Also anything about Man Afraid and Red Cloud and the men's societies they belonged to. Old Man Afraid of His Horse is said to have been the founder of the Wichiska warrior society among the Oglala, for instance.
Interesting that Smoke had the name Slow Bull late in life. That was the name of a chief of the Oyuhpe band (Wounded Knee District), born about 1823. Could they have been related? This younger chief Slow Bull was originally Miniconjou, signed the treaty of 1868 with the Miniconjous, but later (1872?) joined the Oglalas.
Jinlian, Thanks , You I've never seen the shirt up close, so that's nice to know also. On post #4, Elizabeth Young Bear, is the GGranddaughter of Chief Smoke, her mother was Sophie Smoke, her brother Severt's book "Standing in the Light" he lists their family tree. The bones of Chief Smoke were returned to the Young Bear family but it took quite awhile before they were brought home for reburial which was in 1996. He was reburied near the Young Bear home on their private land near Porcupine, South Dakota, with great honor and respect by all Smoke descendants.
Many thanks Deb, it's great to have news updated
"Don't ever tell anybody anything. If you do, you start missing everybody."
Thank you Jinlian, and Thank you Wendyl , I stand corrected on Smoke's reburiel, I just remembered it wrong. I think that this is a great website for many of us who were never told much about who their ancestors were and how it was when they lived. it is quite the learning experience for everyone I'm sure.
Post by miller7513 on Jan 10, 2011 17:03:16 GMT -5
re:Smoke and his family The chief sachem of this tribe is a very ancient and patriarchal looking man, by the name of Eeh-tohk-pah-shee-pee-shah (the Black Moccasin), and counts, undoubtedly, more than an hundred snows. I have been for some days an inmate of his hospitable lodge, where he sits tottering with age, and silently reigns sole monarch of his little community around him, who are continually dropping in to cheer his sinking energies, and render him their homage. His voice and his sight are nearly gone; but the gestures of his hands are yet energetic and youthful, and freely speak the language of his kind heart. The son of Black Moccasin, whose name is Ee-a-chin-che-a (the Red Thunder), and who is reputed one of the most desperate warriors of his tribe, I have also painted at full length, in his war-dress, with his bow in his hand, his quiver slung, and his shield upon his arm. In this plight, sans head-dress, sans robe, and sans everything that might be an useless incumbrance -- with the body chiefly naked, and profusely bedaubed with red and black paint, so as to form an almost Perfect disguise, the Indian warriors invariably sally forth to war; save the chief, who always plumes himself, and leads on his little band, tendering himself to his enemies a conspicuous mark, with all his ornaments and trophies upon him; that his enemies, if they get him, may get a prize worth the fighting for. miller7513
I found a lot of information here as well as in the book 'The June Rise", were as mentioned Antoine married First Elk Woman, First Elk Woman was said to be the child of Chief Smoke. I cannot find this 'link' between the two. I am also having trouble verifying that actual count of children between Antoine and First Elk Woman. First Elk Woman and Antoine would be my 4th great-grandparents. I have names and details, however, not it seems as if certain things are not adding up and I could use any help available. I am also happy to help with anything I may be of service with. Please contact at your earliest convenience. Thank you.
Post by reesescup024 on May 25, 2011 17:32:25 GMT -5
I have read that Big Mouth and Blue Horse were twins born the same year as their cousin Red Cloud. Things are very confusing; in The June Rise it was told that Red Cloud was the half sibling of the descendants I am looking for; First Elk Woman and Swift Hawk. According to that book they all have the same father; Chief Smoke. I have just recently read that Red Cloud was actually Chief Smoke's nephew on the maternal side.
I am looking for any information available on First Elk Woman, who has also been referred to as Mary Featherman First Elk Woman. As well as information in regards to her parents and siblings. More so I am searching for anything in regards to the last name Merrival. Thank you.