A couple of years ago, Graham posted this image from the New York Public Library (Dennis Collection). Several folks recognized various Arikara and Mandan leaders -- including Rushing Bear, Crow Breast, and others, and speculated that there were also Yanktonai present. Graham speculated that the photograph was taken in the late 1860s or early 1870s. Dietmar wondered if the photograph might have been taken by Stanley J. Morrow.
If you look in the background, you can establish where the photograph was taken and thereby narrow the time frame to the early 1870s. Notice the businesses -- all of which operated in Bismarck in the early 1870s including John Eegen's City Bakery, Thomas McGowan's Dakota House, and Marshall & Campbell's shoe store. This tells us that this photograph was taken on Front Street in Bismarck. While Morrow is a candidate for the photographer, could also be an early image by Goff who was operating in Bismarck during this time frame.
I wonder if we can identify some other leaders in this image and perhaps narrow down when it was taken even further.
I wondered if the man in the fur turban was Red Dog, though there are other images of Lakota and Yanktonai leaders in similar headgear. (If it was Red Dog, that would date the photograph to August 1872). A small delegation went to Indian Territory in 1874 and a large delegation from Fort Berthold passed through Bismarck in June 1875 to sign a peace treaty with the Lakota from Standing Rock. A small delegation went to Washington, D.C. in 1875. What does everyone think?
Just shooting in the dark, but according to Billy Garnett's Interview with Ricker, Red Dog was one of the Lakota delegates from Red Cloud Agency who travelled to Cheyenne River and Standing Rock agencies in summer 1875, to secure attendance at the upcoming Black Hills talks. Bismarck is farther on than Standing Rock, and I see no reason why he should have travelled there, but it's maybe a context for an 1875 date for this wonderful photo.
If this is the peacemaking btw the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara with the Standing Rock Lakotas -- perhaps the Standing Rock council sent a welcoming committee to Bismarck to meet the Fort Berthold delegation? Just an idea ...
There are at least three men with turbans in the photo, the two more on the right are identified by us as Arikara and Mandan. I guess Ephriam means the man more on the left... second from left in this edit.
While almost every man wears traditional shirts, there are only two men with white shirts and dark vests, 2nd from left and fourth from left.
Post by kingsleybray on Nov 29, 2015 10:05:49 GMT -5
I see more of a Red Dog resemblance now. But I'm not much good with faces I'm afraid -- so shoot me down in flames, but does Dietmar's other proposed Lakota look like Red Skirt (Miniconjou, Cheyenne River delegate to Washington in 1875)?
My feeling is that this is earlier than 1875, from the way Rushing Bear aka Son of a Star and other delegates look. Please compare his dress and appearance to the comparison of Koos and the second portrait below, while he was in Washington. Isn´t the stereograph (possibly by Gurnsey) below from 1870?
Last Edit: Nov 29, 2015 11:05:38 GMT -5 by Dietmar
Post by kingsleybray on Nov 30, 2015 12:24:00 GMT -5
Thanks Dietmar. White Shield (c. 1798-1878) was the peace chief of the Arikara. Rushing Bear (aka Son of the Star, c. 1813?-1881) was the chief of the 'Soldier' police, and by extension the tribal war, or second chief. Rushing Bear's father was Bloody Hand, the Arikara leader painted by George Catlin in 1832. Their village group was the Awahu.