New info about Apache names (From antropological notes of the interviews of Asa Daklugie and Eugene Chihuahua): Chihuahua - Tłá•’í•’ez - “To push something under something else with your foot”. Jolsanne/Ulzana - Ozaní’(Daklugie): “Tanned buckskin”; Eugene Chhuahua says it means nothing, being just a name, but that Ozani was called Bį•sópàn which means “Big Buckskin”.
I would like to know in what book is all of this information you typed. I am very interested in the apartment culture since I was little. If possible
I take information not from any one book, but from many different sources, to list which will be a very difficult task. These are various books, periodicals, government documents published on official websites, and more. From books relating to the life of the Chief Chihuahua, I can recommend the books of Sweeney, Eva Ball, and Shame and Endurance: The Untold Story of the Chiricahua Apache Prisoners of War by H. Henrietta Stockel about postwar times.
Post by Californian on Aug 10, 2019 14:29:03 GMT -5
An early and well detailed/documented account on Ulzana's exploits during the Apache Wars is to be found in "Death in the Desert" by Paul I. Wellman, The MacMillan Company, New York 1935, chapter 24. Paul Welman, a journalist, author and historian [1895-1966] grew up in Oklahoma giving him unprecedented access to the then still living eyewitnesses to these events. His book is loaded with explanatory footnotes and source citations.
Brothers Chihuahua and Ulzana took the lead in their Chokonen community in the most difficult and tragic for all Chiricahua Apaches period, when traditional way of life was collapsing at catastrophic speed, and habitual sources of subsistence and nomadic paths were disappearing. Transition to reservation way of life was fatally inevitable. But the chiefs who understood that still could not give up the usual way of thinking and willy-nilly rushed from side to side under conditions of the most contradicting information and constantly changing circumstances of period of change. Pride of the leaders of great warriors who terrified population of the whole South-West of the United States and North-West of Mexico came into irreconcilable conflict with necessity to yield to methodical unstoppable dominance of "white-eyed" newcomers for the sake of saving lives of their people in the new and unfamiliar world. In such circumstances, these natural born warriors sometimes decide to abandon their habitual life and enlist to American army, and sometimes they give under the new conditions and burden of threats (either real or false), and try to escape looking for a nook where they can live a "normal" life. They do not know yet that they have no place to go, and any escape is the beginning of hopeless bloodletting war, and they cannot win this war despite their fantastic war mastery allowing them to inflict losses on the enemy dozens times more than their own losses.
Chain of circumstances (which mainly were beyond their control) led them to the catastrophe — to loss of all tribal lands, total eviction to the East of the US, and death of the majority of fellow tribesmen from new unknown diseases. But they were fighting as long as they could bring themselves to believe that they can preserve their own world and way of life.
At the same time, these leaders bore the heaviest load on their shoulders: responsibility for the dozens of their people and their future ancestors whose destiny was in their hands. Having lost the last hope, they resolutely resigned to their fate, accepted quarter-century captivity and brought their people through it doing everything they could to relieve their suffering and to enable the fastest transition to the farmers' way of life that was absolutely new for them.
Scrupulous analysis of the events of the last Apache war which, owing to mass media, was called "Geronimo's Campaign" shows that the major part of the most dramatic events is linked to names of Chihuahua and Ulzana-Josanie. That is how actions of these chiefs and their warriors were evaluated by Henry W. Daly who personally took part in the events of 1885-86: «I suppose I do not exaggerate at all when I say that 95 per cent of the people killed during "Geronimo's Campaign" met their death from Chihuahua and two dozens of his "Cossacks of the Sierra Madre" [8, 470].
And no matter that their names are not even mentioned in many famous dictionaries and encyclopedias dedicated to American Indians; they forever remain in the memory of their descendants, which is clearly seen from the books of the researchers of the 20th Century based on memoirs of Apaches themselves.
Chief Chihuahua portrait
Bibliography 1. Ball E. In the Days of Victorio. — University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994. 2. Ball E. with Henn N. and Sanchez L. Indeh: An Apache Odyssey. — University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1994. 3. Basso K.H. Western Apache Raiding and Warfare, from the Notes of Grenville Goodwin. — University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1973. 4. Betzinez J. with Nay W.S. I Fought with Geronimo. — University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln&London, 1987. 5. Bourke J.G. An Apache Campaign in Sierra Madre. — Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1958. 6. Davis B. The Truth about Geronimo. — University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln&London, 1997. 7. Debo A. Geronimo: The Man, His Time, His Place. — University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1998. 8. Eyewitnesses to the Indian Wars, 1865-1890. — Edited by Peter Cozzens. — Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, 2001. 9. Faulk O.B. The Geronimo Campaign. — Oxford University Press, 1969. 10. Fort Huachuca and The Apache Campaign 1886. — Huachuca Illustrated (Volume 7), 1999. 11. МcDonald Boyer R., Duffy Gayton N. Apache Mothers and Daughters: Four Generations of a Family. — University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1992. 12. Opler M.E. A Chiricahua Apache’s Account of the Geronimo Campaign of 1886. — New Mexico Historical Review, №13, 1938. 13. Opler M.E. An Apache Life-Way: the Economic, Social, and Religious Institutions of the Chiricahua Indians. — University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln&London, 1996. 14. Radbourne A. Mickey Free: Apache captive, interpreter, and Indian Scout. — Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, 2005. 15. Robinson S., Ball E. Apache Voices: Their Stories of Survival as Told to Eve Ball. — University of New Mexico Press, 2000 16. Simmons M. Massacre on the Lordsburg Road: A Tragedy of the Apache War. — Texas A&M University Press, 1997. 17. Skinner W.B. The apache rock crumbles: The captivity of Geronimo’s People. — Pensacola, Florida, 1987. 18. Sweeney E.R. Cochise, Chiricahua Apache Chief. — University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1991. 19. Thrapp D.L. The Conquest of Apacheria. — University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1979. 20. Thrapp D.L. Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography. — 3 vols. — Arthur H. Clark Co., Glendale, 1988.
Additional Materials: Sweeney E.R. Chuhuahua of the Chiricahuas. — Wild West, Aug. 2000 Aranda D.D. Josanie – Apache Warrior. — True West, June 1976